Dose-response effect of tomato paste on 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene-induced hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis.J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2004 Jun; 23(2):241-9.JE
We evaluated the dose-response effect of tomato paste on 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced hamster buccal pouch (HBP) carcinogenesis using lipid peroxidation, reduced glutathione (GSH) and the GSH-dependent enzymes; glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase (GGT) as biomarkers of chemoprevention. Hamsters were divided into eight groups of six animals each. The right buccal pouches of animals in group 1 were painted with a 0.5 per cent DMBA in liquid paraffin three times per week. Animals in groups 2 to 4 painted with DMBA as in group 1, received in addition, intragastric administration of tomato paste containing lycopene at concentrations of 2.5, 5 and 10 mgkg(-1)bw, respectively three times per week on days alternate to DMBA application. Groups 5 through 7 were given tomato paste alone. Animals in group 8 served as controls. All animals were killed after an experimental period of 14 weeks. Lipid peroxidation and GSH-dependent antioxidants were measured in the buccal pouch, liver and erythrocytes. Diminished lipid peroxidation in the HBP tumours was associated with enhanced levels of GSH and GSH-dependent enzymes. In contrast to the buccal pouch, the liver and erythrocytes of tumour-bearing hamsters exhibited elevated lipid peroxidation accompanied by compromised antioxidant status. Administration of tomato paste significantly reduced the incidence of HBP tumours, modulated lipid peroxidation and enhanced GSH and GSH-dependent enzymes in the pouch, liver and erythrocytes. Among the three doses used, tomato paste containing 5 mgkg(-1)bw lycopene showed the optimum effect. It is suggested that tomato paste exerts its chemopreventive effects by modulating lipid peroxidation and enhancing antioxidants in the target organ as well as in the liver and erythrocytes.