Decrease in hospitalization and mortality rates among children with perinatally acquired HIV type 1 infection receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy.Clin Infect Dis. 2004 Sep 01; 39(5):725-31.CI
The impact of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) on human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) disease progression in perinatally infected children is not well documented. This study aims to identify the effect of evolving antiretroviral therapy on the immunologic and virologic status of and hospitalization and mortality rates among perinatally infected children.
Children receiving outpatient care during 1994-2001 at 3 HIV clinics in southern California were observed longitudinally for CD4+ cell percentage, plasma HIV-1 RNA load, antiretroviral treatment, Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia (PCP) prophylaxis, and rate of hospital admissions.
A total of 129 children were observed during the study period; 51% were girls, and 40.3% were Hispanic, 29.5% were African American, and 27.1% were white. The mean CD4+ cell percentage increased from 22.5% in 1994 to 31.2% in 2001 (P<.01), and the mean plasma HIV-1 RNA load decreased from 4.53 log10 copies/mL in 1996 to 3.27 log10 copies/mL in 2001 (P<.001). The use of HAART increased from 0% in 1994 to 93% in 2001 (P<.01), whereas the use of PCP prophylaxis decreased from 55% to 16% during this time (P<.001). The hospitalization rate decreased from 6.49 to 0.60 admissions per 100 person-years during 1994-2001 (P<.001). Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-associated hospital admission rates decreased from 15.6% in 1994 to 0% in 2001 (P<.0001). Similarly, the admission rate for patients with Centers for Disease Control and Prevention category B decreased from 29.7% in 1994 to 5.9% in 2001 (P<.0001). Logistic regression analysis showed that CD4+ cell percentage and viral load were independently associated with risk of hospitalization. Survival was significantly longer for those who received HAART.
HIV-1-associated mortality and hospitalization rates decreased significantly between 1994 and 2001 in perinatally infected children. This correlated with an increase in CD4+ cell percentage and a decrease in HIV-1 RNA load concurrently with the expanded use of HAART.