Highly potent PDE4 inhibitors with therapeutic potential.Bioorg Med Chem 2004; 12(17):4645-65BM
The hypothesis that the dose-limiting side effects of PDE4 inhibitors could be mediated via the central nervous system prompted us to design and synthesize a hydrophilic piperidine analog to improve the side effect profile of Ariflo 1, which is an orally active second-generation PDE4 inhibitor. During evaluation of various water-soluble piperidine analogs, 2a-b, 11b-14b, and 17a showed therapeutic potential in cross-species comparison studies. The following three findings were obtained: (1) The hydroxamic acid group, a well known metal chelator, caused a marked increase of inhibitory activity. (2) Water-soluble piperidine analogs lacked the configurational isomerism of Ariflo 1 without loss of inhibitory activity. (3) Replacement of the 4-methoxy residue with a difluoromethoxy residue led to an increase of in vivo potency. Structure-activity relationships are presented. Single-dose rat pharmacokinetic data for 11b, 12b, and 17a are also presented.