Influence of fatigue loading on four post-and-core systems in maxillary premolars.Quintessence Int. 2004 Sep; 35(8):657-67.QI
Clinical studies show a high failure incidence after years of service of endodontically treated premolars, when restored with post-core crowns, especially those with short posts or deficient ferrules. The reason for this can be a deterioration of the luting cement around the post by fatigue from functional loading. In particular, the anatomy of premolars may frequently be incompatible with the application of long endodontic posts. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of fatigue loading on the quality of the cement layer between posts with restricted lengths and the root canal wall in premolars. As the stiffness of posts may affect the outcome, post-and-core systems with varying post stiffness were selected.
METHOD AND MATERIALS
Four types of post-and-core systems were selected for this study: three prefabricated post systems combined with a resin composite core material and one cast post and core. The three prefabricated posts were titanium posts (Tenax), quartz-fiber posts (Aestheti-Post), and quartz-coated-carbon-fiber posts (Aestheti-Plus). The post-and-core restorations were made on single-rooted, human, maxillary premolars from which the coronal sections were removed at the level of the proximal cementoenamel junction. Following endodontic treatment, a cast post and core (post length 6 mm) was prepared for each tooth individually (direct method) and cemented into the root canal with chemical cure Panavia 21 TC. The prefabricated posts were directly cemented in the root canal and then, after applying a dual-cure adhesive (Clearfil Photobond), built up with a core build-up composite (Clearfil Photocore). For each group (n = 8), half of the specimens were exposed to fatigue loading (10(6) load cycles) almost perpendicular to the axial axis (85 degrees), while the other half was used as the control. Three parallel, transverse root sections of 1.5-mm thickness, were cut from each specimen. These sections were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to evaluate the cement integrity, while the retention strength of the cemented post sections was determined with a push-out test.
Fatigue loading did not cause separation of the buildups from the roots or affect the push-out strength. On a univariate level, only SEM evaluation showed significant differences between the types of post, fatigue loading, and between the levels of root sections. The cement integrity with the titanium post was significantly less than with the other three systems, which did not differ among themselves. The differences could not be explained by differences in stiffness between the posts.
A composite core build-up material bonded to the dentin and supported by quartz-fiber posts or quartz-coated-carbon-fiber posts, cemented with adhesive cement like Panavia 21 TC, may be a viable alternative for the conventional cast core.