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Impact of dietary and lifestyle factors on the prevalence of hypertension in Western populations.

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Data on the impact of the many dietary and lifestyle factors on the prevalence of hypertension in Western societies are lacking. This study quantified the contributions of body weight, physical inactivity and dietary factors to the prevalence of hypertension in Finland, Italy, the Netherlands, United Kingdom (UK) and USA.

METHODS

Distributions of blood pressure (BP) and risk factors in Western populations were obtained from nationwide surveys. The effect of risk factors on BP was assessed by meta-regression analysis of randomized trials, published between 1966 and March 2001. Population attributable risk percentages (PAR%) for hypertension (i.e. systolic BP > or =140 mmHg) were computed for all risk factors in the five countries.

RESULTS

Being overweight made the largest contribution to hypertension, with PAR% between 11% (Italy) and 25% (USA). PAR% were 5-13% for physical inactivity, 9-17% for high sodium intake, 4-17% for low potassium intake and 4-8% for low magnesium intake. The impact of alcohol was small (2-3%) in all populations. PAR% varied among populations for inadequate intake of calcium (2-8%), magnesium (4-8%), coffee (0-9%) and fish fatty acids (3-16%).

CONCLUSIONS

Diet and lifestyle have a substantial impact on hypertension in Western societies, with being overweight, physical inactivity, high sodium intake and low potassium intake being the main contributors. The relative significance of different risk factors varies among populations, which is important for preventative strategies.

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  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    Division of Human Nutrition, Wageningen University, Wageningen, The Netherlands. marianne.geleijnse@wur.nl

    ,

    Source

    European journal of public health 14:3 2004 Sep pg 235-9

    MeSH

    Adolescent
    Adult
    Aged
    Body Mass Index
    Body Weight
    Diet
    Exercise
    Female
    Finland
    Humans
    Hypertension
    Italy
    Life Style
    Male
    Meta-Analysis as Topic
    Middle Aged
    Netherlands
    Obesity
    Prevalence
    Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
    Regression Analysis
    Risk Factors
    Sports
    United Kingdom
    United States

    Pub Type(s)

    Comparative Study
    Journal Article
    Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    15369026

    Citation

    Geleijnse, Johanna M., et al. "Impact of Dietary and Lifestyle Factors On the Prevalence of Hypertension in Western Populations." European Journal of Public Health, vol. 14, no. 3, 2004, pp. 235-9.
    Geleijnse JM, Kok FJ, Grobbee DE. Impact of dietary and lifestyle factors on the prevalence of hypertension in Western populations. Eur J Public Health. 2004;14(3):235-9.
    Geleijnse, J. M., Kok, F. J., & Grobbee, D. E. (2004). Impact of dietary and lifestyle factors on the prevalence of hypertension in Western populations. European Journal of Public Health, 14(3), pp. 235-9.
    Geleijnse JM, Kok FJ, Grobbee DE. Impact of Dietary and Lifestyle Factors On the Prevalence of Hypertension in Western Populations. Eur J Public Health. 2004;14(3):235-9. PubMed PMID: 15369026.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - Impact of dietary and lifestyle factors on the prevalence of hypertension in Western populations. AU - Geleijnse,Johanna M, AU - Kok,Frans J, AU - Grobbee,Diederick E, PY - 2004/9/17/pubmed PY - 2004/10/29/medline PY - 2004/9/17/entrez SP - 235 EP - 9 JF - European journal of public health JO - Eur J Public Health VL - 14 IS - 3 N2 - BACKGROUND: Data on the impact of the many dietary and lifestyle factors on the prevalence of hypertension in Western societies are lacking. This study quantified the contributions of body weight, physical inactivity and dietary factors to the prevalence of hypertension in Finland, Italy, the Netherlands, United Kingdom (UK) and USA. METHODS: Distributions of blood pressure (BP) and risk factors in Western populations were obtained from nationwide surveys. The effect of risk factors on BP was assessed by meta-regression analysis of randomized trials, published between 1966 and March 2001. Population attributable risk percentages (PAR%) for hypertension (i.e. systolic BP > or =140 mmHg) were computed for all risk factors in the five countries. RESULTS: Being overweight made the largest contribution to hypertension, with PAR% between 11% (Italy) and 25% (USA). PAR% were 5-13% for physical inactivity, 9-17% for high sodium intake, 4-17% for low potassium intake and 4-8% for low magnesium intake. The impact of alcohol was small (2-3%) in all populations. PAR% varied among populations for inadequate intake of calcium (2-8%), magnesium (4-8%), coffee (0-9%) and fish fatty acids (3-16%). CONCLUSIONS: Diet and lifestyle have a substantial impact on hypertension in Western societies, with being overweight, physical inactivity, high sodium intake and low potassium intake being the main contributors. The relative significance of different risk factors varies among populations, which is important for preventative strategies. SN - 1101-1262 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/15369026/full_citation L2 - https://academic.oup.com/eurpub/article-lookup/doi/10.1093/eurpub/14.3.235 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -