Amino acid metabolism in the Zucker diabetic fatty rat: effects of insulin resistance and of type 2 diabetes.Can J Physiol Pharmacol 2004; 82(7):506-14CJ
We investigated amino acid metabolism in the Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF Gmi fa/fa) rat during the prediabetic insulin-resistant stage and the frank type 2 diabetic stage. Amino acids were measured in plasma, liver, and skeletal muscle, and the ratios of plasma/liver and plasma/skeletal muscle were calculated. At the insulin-resistant stage, the plasma concentrations of the gluconeogenic amino acids aspartate, serine, glutamine, glycine, and histidine were decreased in the ZDF Gmi fa/fa rats, whereas taurine, alpha-aminoadipic acid, methionine, phenylalanine, tryptophan, and the 3 branched-chain amino acids were significantly increased. At the diabetic stage, a larger number of gluconeogenic amino acids had decreased plasma concentrations. The 3 branched-chain amino acids had elevated plasma concentrations. In the liver and the skeletal muscles, concentrations of many of the gluconeogenic amino acids were lower at both stages, whereas the levels of 1 or all of the branched-chain amino acids were elevated. These changes in amino acid concentrations are similar to changes seen in type 1 diabetes. It is evident that insulin resistance alone is capable of bringing about many of the changes in amino acid metabolism observed in type 2 diabetes.