In vitro fermentation of various fiber and starch sources by pig fecal inocula.J Anim Sci. 2004 Sep; 82(9):2615-22.JA
Freeze-dried ileal effluent (1% wt/vol) from cannulated pigs fed rice-based diets with the inclusion of either animal protein (CON), animal protein plus potato starch (PS), animal protein plus sugar beet pulp (SBP), or animal protein plus wheat bran (WB) was incubated anaerobically at pH 6.0 in fermenters containing 5% (wt/vol) fecal slurry comprising mineral salts medium and 50 g/L of fresh feces from pigs fed the same diets as the cannulated pigs. Samples were collected from the fermenters at 0, 2, 4, 12, 24, and 48 h during in vitro fermentation for measuring nonstarch polysaccharides (NSP), starch, and short-chain fatty acids (SCFA). Results showed that the major SCFA produced were acetate, propionate, and butyrate. The inclusion of soluble dietary fiber (diet SBP) caused the highest concentrations of acetate, propionate, butyrate, and total SCFA, whereas the increase in the production of propionate resulting from the addition of insoluble dietary fiber (diet WB) only occurred at the initial stages during 48 h in vitro fermentation. At all sampling occasions (except for 4 h), the levels of butyrate were increased (P < 0.01) by resistant starch compared with fiber sources, showing that a higher level of butyrate can be achieved through microbial fermentation by potato starch. Lowered (P < 0.05) butyrate concentrations were observed with diet WB during in vitro fermentation. With the inclusion of fiber sources, the energy originating from SCFA was similar to that from NSP disappearance, whereas the values were lower (P < 0.05) from NSP disappearance than for SCFA generated without fiber sources supplemented. We conclude that more substrate is available in ileal effluent with the addition of soluble dietary fiber, and an increased level of butyrate could be achieved through microbial fermentation by resistant starch.