Cadmium induces apoptotic cell death in WI 38 cells via caspase-dependent Bid cleavage and calpain-mediated mitochondrial Bax cleavage by Bcl-2-independent pathway.Biochem Pharmacol. 2004 Nov 01; 68(9):1845-55.BP
Previous reports have demonstrated that cadmium (Cd) may induce cell death via apoptosis, but the mechanism responsible for cellular death is not clear. In this study, we investigated the signaling pathways implicated in Cd-induced apoptosis in lung epithelial fibroblast (WI 38) cells. Apoptotic features were observed using terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling assay, propidium iodide staining and DNA laddering. A treatment of cadmium caused the caspase-8-dependent Bid cleavage, the release of cytochrome c (Cyt c), activation of caspase-9 and -3, and PARP cleavage. A caspase-8 specific inhibitor prevented the Bid cleavage, caspase-3 activation and cell death. Alternatively, we observed that full-length Bax was cleaved into 18-kDa fragment (p18/Bax); this was initiated after 12 h and by 36 h the full-length Bax protein was totally cleaved to the p18/Bax, which caused a drastic release of Cyt c from mitochondria. The p18/Bax was detected exclusively in the mitochondrial fraction, and it originated from mitochondrial full-length Bax, but not from the cytosol full-length Bax. Cd also induced the activation of the mitochondrial 30-kDa small subunit of calpain that was preceded by Bax cleavage. Cd induced the upregulation of Bcl-2 and the degradation of p53 protein. N-acetyl cysteine effectively inhibited the Cd-induced DeltaPsim reduction, indicating ROS acts upstream of mitochondrial membrane depolarization. Taken together, our results suggest that Cd-induced apoptosis was thought to be mediated at least two pathways; caspase-dependent Bid cleavage, and the other is calpain-mediated mitochondrial Bax cleavage. Moreover, we found that the function of Bid and Bax was not dependent of Bcl-2, and that ROS can also contribute in the Cd-induced cell death.