Dietary intakes in adult patients with cystic fibrosis--do they achieve guidelines?J Cyst Fibros 2004; 3(1):1-7JC
Most patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) require a higher energy and protein intake than their healthy peer group. There are few data on dietary intakes of adult patients. The aim of this study was to determine nutritional intakes in an adult population with CF. The impact of nutritional intervention and disease on macronutrient intake was examined.
Retrospective cross-sectional analysis of 94 unweighed food diaries at annual review (1995-2000). Energy and protein intakes were compared to the estimated average requirement (EAR) for energy and reference nutrient intake (RNI) for protein. The effect of diet alone, oral supplements, enteral tube feeding, and cystic fibrosis related diabetes (CFRD), on macronutrient intake was examined and impact of pancreatic sufficency (PS) and lung transplantation.
Mean energy and protein intakes approached recommended CF guidelines, but in 72% of assessments these values were not achieved. Mean energy and protein intakes for patients on diet alone and protein intake for those with CFRD failed to meet recommendations. Oral supplementation and enteral tube feeding regimens increased energy and protein intake above recommended levels. No group achieved 40% total energy from fat. Patients receiving enteral tube feeds had the highest mean energy and protein intakes but lowest body mass index (BMI) and lung function.
Adequate mean energy and protein intakes in adult patients with CF mask subgroups of patients who fail to meet recommendations ie. diet alone, diabetic. Oral supplementation and enteral tube feeding increase energy and protein intake but fail to achieve an adequate BMI level in subjects with a decreased clinical status. Individual nutritional assessment remains essential.