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Effects of a long-term vegetarian diet on biomarkers of antioxidant status and cardiovascular disease risk.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

We compared plasma biomarkers of antioxidant status, oxidative stress, inflammation, and risk for coronary heart disease in long-term vegetarians and age- and sex-matched omnivores.

METHODS

Thirty vegetarians (mean age +/- standard deviation: 44.2 +/- 9.0 y) were recruited. The subjects had been vegetarian for 5 to 55 y (21.8 +/- 12.2 y). The control group comprised 30 adults selected by age-stratified sampling from a community health project (mean age: 44.0 +/- 9.2 y). Fasting plasma total antioxidant status (ferric-reducing antioxidant power), ascorbic acid (AA), alpha-tocopherol (total and lipid standardized), malondialdehyde, total cholesterol, triacylglycerol, uric acid (UA), and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) were measured.

RESULTS

Plasma AA was significantly higher in the vegetarians than in the omnivores (90.5 +/- 21.0 and 61.8 +/- 17.0 microM; P < 0.001). The vegetarians had lower concentrations of triacylglycerol, UA, and hsCRP. Plasma total and lipid-standardized alpha-tocopherol concentrations were also lower in the vegetarians: 22.0 +/- 5.9 and 27.0 +/- 7.9 microM versus 3.76 +/- 0.57 and 4.23 +/- 0.58 microM per millimoles per liter of total cholesterol plus triacylglycerol, respectively. There was a significant inverse correlation between AA and UA (r = -0.343, P < 0.01; n = 60) and between AA and hsCRP (r = -0.306, P < 0.05; n = 55). Plasma ferric-reducing antioxidant power and malondialdehyde did not differ significantly between groups; however, the contribution of AA to the total antioxidant capacity of plasma was approximately 50% greater in the vegetarians.

CONCLUSIONS

A long-term vegetarian diet is associated with markedly higher fasting plasma AA concentrations and lower concentrations of TAG, UA, and hsCRP. Long-term vegetarians have a better antioxidant status and coronary heart disease risk profile than do apparently healthy omnivores. Plasma AA may act a useful marker of overall health status.

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  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    Antioxidant Research Team, School of Nursing, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR, China.

    ,

    Source

    MeSH

    Adult
    Antioxidants
    Ascorbic Acid
    Biomarkers
    C-Reactive Protein
    Cardiovascular Diseases
    Case-Control Studies
    Coronary Disease
    Diet, Vegetarian
    Female
    Health Status
    Humans
    Male
    Oxidative Stress
    Risk Factors
    Triglycerides
    Uric Acid

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article
    Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    15474873

    Citation

    Szeto, Y T., et al. "Effects of a Long-term Vegetarian Diet On Biomarkers of Antioxidant Status and Cardiovascular Disease Risk." Nutrition (Burbank, Los Angeles County, Calif.), vol. 20, no. 10, 2004, pp. 863-6.
    Szeto YT, Kwok TC, Benzie IF. Effects of a long-term vegetarian diet on biomarkers of antioxidant status and cardiovascular disease risk. Nutrition. 2004;20(10):863-6.
    Szeto, Y. T., Kwok, T. C., & Benzie, I. F. (2004). Effects of a long-term vegetarian diet on biomarkers of antioxidant status and cardiovascular disease risk. Nutrition (Burbank, Los Angeles County, Calif.), 20(10), pp. 863-6.
    Szeto YT, Kwok TC, Benzie IF. Effects of a Long-term Vegetarian Diet On Biomarkers of Antioxidant Status and Cardiovascular Disease Risk. Nutrition. 2004;20(10):863-6. PubMed PMID: 15474873.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - Effects of a long-term vegetarian diet on biomarkers of antioxidant status and cardiovascular disease risk. AU - Szeto,Y T, AU - Kwok,Timothy C Y, AU - Benzie,Iris F F, PY - 2004/10/12/pubmed PY - 2005/4/9/medline PY - 2004/10/12/entrez SP - 863 EP - 6 JF - Nutrition (Burbank, Los Angeles County, Calif.) JO - Nutrition VL - 20 IS - 10 N2 - OBJECTIVE: We compared plasma biomarkers of antioxidant status, oxidative stress, inflammation, and risk for coronary heart disease in long-term vegetarians and age- and sex-matched omnivores. METHODS: Thirty vegetarians (mean age +/- standard deviation: 44.2 +/- 9.0 y) were recruited. The subjects had been vegetarian for 5 to 55 y (21.8 +/- 12.2 y). The control group comprised 30 adults selected by age-stratified sampling from a community health project (mean age: 44.0 +/- 9.2 y). Fasting plasma total antioxidant status (ferric-reducing antioxidant power), ascorbic acid (AA), alpha-tocopherol (total and lipid standardized), malondialdehyde, total cholesterol, triacylglycerol, uric acid (UA), and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) were measured. RESULTS: Plasma AA was significantly higher in the vegetarians than in the omnivores (90.5 +/- 21.0 and 61.8 +/- 17.0 microM; P < 0.001). The vegetarians had lower concentrations of triacylglycerol, UA, and hsCRP. Plasma total and lipid-standardized alpha-tocopherol concentrations were also lower in the vegetarians: 22.0 +/- 5.9 and 27.0 +/- 7.9 microM versus 3.76 +/- 0.57 and 4.23 +/- 0.58 microM per millimoles per liter of total cholesterol plus triacylglycerol, respectively. There was a significant inverse correlation between AA and UA (r = -0.343, P < 0.01; n = 60) and between AA and hsCRP (r = -0.306, P < 0.05; n = 55). Plasma ferric-reducing antioxidant power and malondialdehyde did not differ significantly between groups; however, the contribution of AA to the total antioxidant capacity of plasma was approximately 50% greater in the vegetarians. CONCLUSIONS: A long-term vegetarian diet is associated with markedly higher fasting plasma AA concentrations and lower concentrations of TAG, UA, and hsCRP. Long-term vegetarians have a better antioxidant status and coronary heart disease risk profile than do apparently healthy omnivores. Plasma AA may act a useful marker of overall health status. SN - 0899-9007 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/15474873/full_citation L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0899900704001674 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -