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Evaluation of the analgesic, anti-inflammatory and anti-diabetic properties of Sclerocarya birrea (A. Rich.) Hochst. stem-bark aqueous extract in mice and rats.
Phytother Res. 2004 Aug; 18(8):601-8.PR

Abstract

In order to appraise some of the ethnomedical uses of Sclerocarya birrea (A. Rich.) Hochst., subspecies caffra (Sond.) Kokwaro [family: Anacardiaceae], the present study was undertaken to investigate the analgesic, anti-inflammatory and anti-diabetic properties of the plant's stem-bark aqueous extract in experimental models of pain, inflammation and diabetes mellitus. The analgesic effect of Sclerocarya birrea stem-bark aqueous extract was evaluated in mice, while its anti-inflammatory and anti-diabetic effects were investigated in rats. Diclofenac (DIC, 100 mg/kg p. o.) and chlorpropamide (250 mg/kg p. o.) were used respectively as reference analgesic, anti-inflammatory and anti-diabetic agents for comparison. Like diclofenac (DIC, 100 mg/kg p. o.), Sclerocarya birrea stem-bark aqueous extract (SBE, 100-800 mg/kg p. o.) produced dose-dependent, significant protection (p < 0.05-0.001) against electrical heat-induced pain. The plant extract (SBE, 25-800 mg/kg p. o.) also produced dose- and time-related, sustained and significant reductions (p < 0.05-0.001) in the fresh egg albumin-induced acute inflammation of the rat hind paw oedema. However, the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of the plant's extract were found to be approximately 10-15 times less than that of diclofenac. In one set of experiments involving hypoglycaemic/antidiabetic evaluation of the plant's extract, graded doses of Sclerocarya birrea stem-bark aqueous extract (SBE, 25-800 mg/kg p. o.) were separately administered to groups of fasted normal and fasted diabetic rats. In another set of experiments, a single dose of the plant's aqueous extract (SBE, 800 mg/kg p. o.) was used. The hypoglycaemic effect of this single dose of Sclerocarya birrea stem-bark aqueous extract (SBE, 800 mg/kg p. o.) was compared with that of chlorpropamide (250 mg/kg p. o.) in both fasted normal and fasted streptozotocin (STZ)-treated diabetic rats. Following acute treatment, relatively moderate to high doses of Sclerocarya birrea stem-bark aqueous extract (SBE, 25-800 mg/kg p. o.) produced dose-dependent, significant reductions (p < 0.05-0.001) in the blood glucose concentrations of both fasted normal and fasted diabetic rats. Chlorpropamide (250 mg/kg p. o.) also produced significant reductions (p < 0.05-0.001) in the blood glucose concentrations of the fasted normal and fasted diabetic rats. Administration of the single dose of Sclerocarya birrea stem-bark aqueous extract (SBE, 800 mg/kg p. o.) significantly reduced (p < 0.01-0.001) the blood glucose levels of both fasted normal (normoglycaemic) and fasted STZ-treated, diabetic rats. The results of this experimental animal study indicate that Sclerocarya birrea stem-bark aqueous extract possesses analgesic, anti-inflammatory and hypoglycaemic properties. These experimental findings lend pharmacological support to the suggested folkloric uses of the plant's stem-bark in the management and/or control of pain, inflammatory conditions, and adult-onset, type-2 diabetes mellitus in some communities of South Africa.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Pharmacology, University of Durban-Westville, Durban 4000, South Africa. ojewolej@ukzn.ac.za

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

15476310

Citation

Ojewole, John A O.. "Evaluation of the Analgesic, Anti-inflammatory and Anti-diabetic Properties of Sclerocarya Birrea (A. Rich.) Hochst. Stem-bark Aqueous Extract in Mice and Rats." Phytotherapy Research : PTR, vol. 18, no. 8, 2004, pp. 601-8.
Ojewole JA. Evaluation of the analgesic, anti-inflammatory and anti-diabetic properties of Sclerocarya birrea (A. Rich.) Hochst. stem-bark aqueous extract in mice and rats. Phytother Res. 2004;18(8):601-8.
Ojewole, J. A. (2004). Evaluation of the analgesic, anti-inflammatory and anti-diabetic properties of Sclerocarya birrea (A. Rich.) Hochst. stem-bark aqueous extract in mice and rats. Phytotherapy Research : PTR, 18(8), 601-8.
Ojewole JA. Evaluation of the Analgesic, Anti-inflammatory and Anti-diabetic Properties of Sclerocarya Birrea (A. Rich.) Hochst. Stem-bark Aqueous Extract in Mice and Rats. Phytother Res. 2004;18(8):601-8. PubMed PMID: 15476310.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Evaluation of the analgesic, anti-inflammatory and anti-diabetic properties of Sclerocarya birrea (A. Rich.) Hochst. stem-bark aqueous extract in mice and rats. A1 - Ojewole,John A O, PY - 2004/10/12/pubmed PY - 2004/12/16/medline PY - 2004/10/12/entrez SP - 601 EP - 8 JF - Phytotherapy research : PTR JO - Phytother Res VL - 18 IS - 8 N2 - In order to appraise some of the ethnomedical uses of Sclerocarya birrea (A. Rich.) Hochst., subspecies caffra (Sond.) Kokwaro [family: Anacardiaceae], the present study was undertaken to investigate the analgesic, anti-inflammatory and anti-diabetic properties of the plant's stem-bark aqueous extract in experimental models of pain, inflammation and diabetes mellitus. The analgesic effect of Sclerocarya birrea stem-bark aqueous extract was evaluated in mice, while its anti-inflammatory and anti-diabetic effects were investigated in rats. Diclofenac (DIC, 100 mg/kg p. o.) and chlorpropamide (250 mg/kg p. o.) were used respectively as reference analgesic, anti-inflammatory and anti-diabetic agents for comparison. Like diclofenac (DIC, 100 mg/kg p. o.), Sclerocarya birrea stem-bark aqueous extract (SBE, 100-800 mg/kg p. o.) produced dose-dependent, significant protection (p < 0.05-0.001) against electrical heat-induced pain. The plant extract (SBE, 25-800 mg/kg p. o.) also produced dose- and time-related, sustained and significant reductions (p < 0.05-0.001) in the fresh egg albumin-induced acute inflammation of the rat hind paw oedema. However, the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of the plant's extract were found to be approximately 10-15 times less than that of diclofenac. In one set of experiments involving hypoglycaemic/antidiabetic evaluation of the plant's extract, graded doses of Sclerocarya birrea stem-bark aqueous extract (SBE, 25-800 mg/kg p. o.) were separately administered to groups of fasted normal and fasted diabetic rats. In another set of experiments, a single dose of the plant's aqueous extract (SBE, 800 mg/kg p. o.) was used. The hypoglycaemic effect of this single dose of Sclerocarya birrea stem-bark aqueous extract (SBE, 800 mg/kg p. o.) was compared with that of chlorpropamide (250 mg/kg p. o.) in both fasted normal and fasted streptozotocin (STZ)-treated diabetic rats. Following acute treatment, relatively moderate to high doses of Sclerocarya birrea stem-bark aqueous extract (SBE, 25-800 mg/kg p. o.) produced dose-dependent, significant reductions (p < 0.05-0.001) in the blood glucose concentrations of both fasted normal and fasted diabetic rats. Chlorpropamide (250 mg/kg p. o.) also produced significant reductions (p < 0.05-0.001) in the blood glucose concentrations of the fasted normal and fasted diabetic rats. Administration of the single dose of Sclerocarya birrea stem-bark aqueous extract (SBE, 800 mg/kg p. o.) significantly reduced (p < 0.01-0.001) the blood glucose levels of both fasted normal (normoglycaemic) and fasted STZ-treated, diabetic rats. The results of this experimental animal study indicate that Sclerocarya birrea stem-bark aqueous extract possesses analgesic, anti-inflammatory and hypoglycaemic properties. These experimental findings lend pharmacological support to the suggested folkloric uses of the plant's stem-bark in the management and/or control of pain, inflammatory conditions, and adult-onset, type-2 diabetes mellitus in some communities of South Africa. SN - 0951-418X UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/15476310/Evaluation_of_the_analgesic_anti_inflammatory_and_anti_diabetic_properties_of_Sclerocarya_birrea__A__Rich___Hochst__stem_bark_aqueous_extract_in_mice_and_rats_ L2 - https://doi.org/10.1002/ptr.1503 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -