Effect of influenza virus vaccine on the expression of human immunodeficiency virus co-receptor CCR5.Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 2004; 93(3):272-6AA
Administration of influenza vaccine to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected children can lead to increased viral load. CCR5 and CXCR4 are known to play an important role in HIV cell entry and viral replication.
To determine the effects of influenza vaccine on chemokine receptors and on viral load in HIV-infected children.
Eight HIV-infected children receiving stable therapy and 11 healthy adults were enrolled. Chemokine expression and immune activation were determined before and 48 hours after influenza vaccination. CCR5 and beta-chemokine gene expression were analyzed using real-time polymerase chain reaction. Viral load was measured at baseline, 48 hours, and 6 to 12 weeks.
Forty-eight hours after influenza vaccination, mean CCR5 expression was significantly decreased on the CD3 (21.1% vs 11.3% in HIV-infected children; P = .02; and 18.3% vs 10.7% in controls; P = .008) and CD4 (13.0% vs 3.6% in the HIV group; P = .04; and 13.6% vs 6.5% in controls; P = .02) lymphocytes. This was observed in conjunction with an increase in HLA-DR expression on T lymphocytes in HIV-infected children (P = .046). No significant changes were observed in HIV viral load, CD3 and CD8 lymphocyte counts, expression of interleukin 2 receptor and CXCR4, or gene expression of CCR5 and beta-chemokines 48 hours after vaccination.
Influenza virus vaccine markedly decreased chemokine receptor CCR5 expression on CD4 T lymphocytes. However, this immunomodulatory effect does not seem to affect overall viral replication in HIV-infected children who received highly active antiretroviral therapy.