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EPI vaccines-induced antibody prevalence in 8-9 year-olds in The Gambia.
Trop Med Int Health. 2004 Oct; 9(10):1044-9.TM

Abstract

OBJECTIVES

We evaluated antibody prevalence to measles, polio 1 and 3, and tetanus toxoid antibodies in 8-9 year-old children in The Gambia within the framework of the Gambia Hepatitis Intervention Study (GHIS), a large vaccine trial aimed at evaluating vaccine efficacy against hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, chronic carriage and primary liver cancer in a high risk population. The results of the present survey were compared with a previous survey performed with the same objectives and same methodology but in different children at 3-4 years of age.

METHODS

Four clusters of 200 children each were sampled as representative of the whole country. Children would have received BCG, diphtheria-pertussis-tetanus vaccine (DPT), poliovirus vaccine (OPV), measles and yellow fever immunization. The measles haemoagglutination inhibition test (HAI) was used to detect measles antibody. Antibodies to polioviruses 1 and 3 were tested using the standard polio neutralization assay described in the EPI manual (WHO 1990). An enzyme-linked immuno-sorbent assay (ELISA) was used to measure tetanus toxoid antibodies.

RESULTS

A high proportion of children were fully vaccinated in both age groups. Measles antibody concentrations were < or =1 : 8 in 8.2% of 8-9 year-old vaccinated children. In the previous survey of 3-4 year-old children this was 11.3%. In the present survey, GMC was lower than in the 3-4 year-old children; 88% of 3-4 year-olds and 89% of 8-9 year-olds had detectable antibody levels against poliovirus type 1. Fewer children at 8-9 years of age had antibodies against poliovirus type 3 than 3-4 year-olds (78%vs. 89% P < 0.001). A significant overall lower proportion of 8-9 year-old children had detectable tetanus toxoid antibodies compared to 3-4 year-old children (87%vs. 95% P < 0.001), as well as those who received four doses of DPT (90%vs. 97% P < 0.001). Conclusions High vaccine coverage is achieved in The Gambia with EPI. With time the number of vaccinated children who are not protected against measles, poliovirus 3 and tetanus increases. Besides the maintenance of high vaccine coverage in infants and young children, booster doses of some of the EPI vaccines in adolescents should be considered.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Gambia Hepatitis Intervention Study, International Agency for Research on Cancer (WHO), Lyon, France. sviviani@hotmail.comNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

15482396

Citation

Viviani, Simonetta, et al. "EPI Vaccines-induced Antibody Prevalence in 8-9 Year-olds in the Gambia." Tropical Medicine & International Health : TM & IH, vol. 9, no. 10, 2004, pp. 1044-9.
Viviani S, Mendy M, Jack AD, et al. EPI vaccines-induced antibody prevalence in 8-9 year-olds in The Gambia. Trop Med Int Health. 2004;9(10):1044-9.
Viviani, S., Mendy, M., Jack, A. D., Hall, A. J., Montesano, R., & Whittle, H. C. (2004). EPI vaccines-induced antibody prevalence in 8-9 year-olds in The Gambia. Tropical Medicine & International Health : TM & IH, 9(10), 1044-9.
Viviani S, et al. EPI Vaccines-induced Antibody Prevalence in 8-9 Year-olds in the Gambia. Trop Med Int Health. 2004;9(10):1044-9. PubMed PMID: 15482396.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - EPI vaccines-induced antibody prevalence in 8-9 year-olds in The Gambia. AU - Viviani,Simonetta, AU - Mendy,Maimuna, AU - Jack,Abdoulie D, AU - Hall,Andrew J, AU - Montesano,Ruggero, AU - Whittle,Hilton C, PY - 2004/10/16/pubmed PY - 2004/12/16/medline PY - 2004/10/16/entrez SP - 1044 EP - 9 JF - Tropical medicine & international health : TM & IH JO - Trop Med Int Health VL - 9 IS - 10 N2 - OBJECTIVES: We evaluated antibody prevalence to measles, polio 1 and 3, and tetanus toxoid antibodies in 8-9 year-old children in The Gambia within the framework of the Gambia Hepatitis Intervention Study (GHIS), a large vaccine trial aimed at evaluating vaccine efficacy against hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, chronic carriage and primary liver cancer in a high risk population. The results of the present survey were compared with a previous survey performed with the same objectives and same methodology but in different children at 3-4 years of age. METHODS: Four clusters of 200 children each were sampled as representative of the whole country. Children would have received BCG, diphtheria-pertussis-tetanus vaccine (DPT), poliovirus vaccine (OPV), measles and yellow fever immunization. The measles haemoagglutination inhibition test (HAI) was used to detect measles antibody. Antibodies to polioviruses 1 and 3 were tested using the standard polio neutralization assay described in the EPI manual (WHO 1990). An enzyme-linked immuno-sorbent assay (ELISA) was used to measure tetanus toxoid antibodies. RESULTS: A high proportion of children were fully vaccinated in both age groups. Measles antibody concentrations were < or =1 : 8 in 8.2% of 8-9 year-old vaccinated children. In the previous survey of 3-4 year-old children this was 11.3%. In the present survey, GMC was lower than in the 3-4 year-old children; 88% of 3-4 year-olds and 89% of 8-9 year-olds had detectable antibody levels against poliovirus type 1. Fewer children at 8-9 years of age had antibodies against poliovirus type 3 than 3-4 year-olds (78%vs. 89% P < 0.001). A significant overall lower proportion of 8-9 year-old children had detectable tetanus toxoid antibodies compared to 3-4 year-old children (87%vs. 95% P < 0.001), as well as those who received four doses of DPT (90%vs. 97% P < 0.001). Conclusions High vaccine coverage is achieved in The Gambia with EPI. With time the number of vaccinated children who are not protected against measles, poliovirus 3 and tetanus increases. Besides the maintenance of high vaccine coverage in infants and young children, booster doses of some of the EPI vaccines in adolescents should be considered. SN - 1360-2276 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/15482396/EPI_vaccines_induced_antibody_prevalence_in_8_9_year_olds_in_The_Gambia_ DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -