[Primary gastric lymphoma].Rev Gastroenterol Peru 2004 Jul-Sep; 24(3):238-62RG
Primary Gastric Lymphoma is an uncommon malignancy among gastric malignancies. Histology of the Primary Gastric Lymphoma is varied and the extranodal marginal zone B-cells lymphoma is specially significant on account of its potential remission with antibiotic therapy.
Observe the clinical characteristics of patients with Primary Gastric Lymphoma, assess the most relevant endoscopic findings, identify the factors that influence survival and evaluate the effects of therapy.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
The study is an observational, analytical, cross evaluation including 169 patients with histological diagnosis of Gastric Lymphoma, treated at the National Institute for Neoplastic Diseases, Lima, Peru, from January 1995 to December 2000. Staging was based on the Ann Arbor system, modified by Musshoff and histology, on the REAL-WHO classification. The statistical analysis included the student-t and the chi-square tests. Survival data were entered using the Kaplan Meier curves and prognosis factors, using the Cox regression test.
The sample represents patients from the Peruvian Coast, with a mean age of 55 years old and slight predominance of female patients (54.4%). Signs and symptoms are unspecific. Clinical stage I-II corresponds to 75% of the patients. The endoscopic pattern of multiple ulcerated lesions is characteristic of the Gastric Lymphoma. A total of 71% of the patients with extranodal marginal zone B-cells lymphoma showed total remission of the disease with antibiotic therapy (5/7). The histological type of the Gastric Lymphoma in the 169 patients was as follows: Large, diffuse, B-cells Lymphoma, 137 patients, extranodal marginal zone B-cells lymphoma, 16 patients, peripheral T-cell Lymphoma, 6 patients, anaplastic large T-cell Lymphoma, 3 patients, undetermined Lymphoma, 3 patients, mantle cell Lymphoma, 2 patients, adult T-cell Lymphoma, 1 patient and follicular Lymphoma, 1 patient. Global survival after 36 months was of 61.34%, survival according to the histological type was of 92.31% for extranodal marginal zone B-cells Lymphomas, 62.21% for large, diffuse B-cells Lymphomas and 29.63% for T-cell Lymphomas. Survival after 36 months in patients in clinical stage I-II treated with chemotherapy, was of 82.16%, with surgery, 71.89% and with surgery and chemotherapy, 70.39, with similar results in all three groups (p: 0.6530). The groups classified according to the international index, showed a clear difference between them (p:0.0000). The univariate analysis revealed that Zubrod (p:0.0000) DHL (p:0.0073) disease remission (p:0.0000) stage (p:0.0000) treatment (p:0.0000) and location (p:0.0000) had statistical significance. Multivariate analysis showed that in the Cox regression model, remission (OR:13,342, p:0.0000) and location (OR:2.375, p:0.041) fall within the equation of such function.
The multiple ulcerated lesions are characteristic of the Gastric Lymphoma. Remission of the disease in the extranodal marginal zone B-cells Lymphoma is evidenced with the use of antibiotic therapy (5/7). Chemotherapy in patients with EC I-II achieves survival results similar to those treated with surgery and with a combination of both. Validity of the international index is confirmed and the multivariate analysis proved that remission and location of the disease have statistical significance.