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Comparative in vitro activity of a pharmacokinetically enhanced oral formulation of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (2000/125 mg twice daily) against 9172 respiratory isolates collected worldwide in 2000.
Int J Infect Dis. 2004 Nov; 8(6):362-73.IJ

Abstract

OBJECTIVES

A new, pharmacokinetically enhanced, oral formulation of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid has been developed to overcome resistance in the major bacterial respiratory pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae, while maintaining excellent activity against Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis, including beta-lactamase producing strains. This study was conducted to provide in vitro susceptibility data for amoxicillin/clavulanic acid and 16 comparator agents against the key respiratory tract pathogens.

METHODS

Susceptibility testing was performed on 9172 isolates collected from 95 centers in North America, Europe, Australia, and Hong Kong by broth microdilution MIC determination, according to NCCLS methods, using amoxicillin/clavulanic acid and 16 comparator antimicrobial agents. Results were interpreted according to NCCLS breakpoints and pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) breakpoints based on oral dosing regimens.

RESULTS

Overall, 93.5% of Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates were susceptible to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid at the current susceptible breakpoint of < or =2 microg/mL and 97.3% at the PK/PD susceptible breakpoint of < or =4 microg/mL for the extended release formulation. Proportions of isolates that were penicillin intermediate and resistant were 13% and 16.5%, respectively, while 25% were macrolide resistant and 21.8% trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole resistant. 21.9% of Haemophilus influenzae were beta-lactamase producers and 16.8% trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole resistant, >99% of isolates were susceptible to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, cefixime, ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin at NCCLS breakpoints. The most active agents against Moraxella catarrhalis were amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, macrolides, cefixime, fluoroquinolones, and doxycycline. Overall, 13% of Streptococcus pyogenes were resistant to macrolides.

CONCLUSION

The extended release formulation of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid has potential for empiric use against many respiratory tract infections worldwide due to its activity against species resistant to many agents currently in use.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Laboratory Specialists, Inc., 1651 A. Crossings Parkway, Westlake, OH, USA. amdlmk@aol.comNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Comparative Study
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

15494258

Citation

Koeth, Laura M., et al. "Comparative in Vitro Activity of a Pharmacokinetically Enhanced Oral Formulation of Amoxicillin/clavulanic Acid (2000/125 Mg Twice Daily) Against 9172 Respiratory Isolates Collected Worldwide in 2000." International Journal of Infectious Diseases : IJID : Official Publication of the International Society for Infectious Diseases, vol. 8, no. 6, 2004, pp. 362-73.
Koeth LM, Jacobs MR, Good CE, et al. Comparative in vitro activity of a pharmacokinetically enhanced oral formulation of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (2000/125 mg twice daily) against 9172 respiratory isolates collected worldwide in 2000. Int J Infect Dis. 2004;8(6):362-73.
Koeth, L. M., Jacobs, M. R., Good, C. E., Bajaksouzian, S., Windau, A., Jakielaszek, C., & Saunders, K. A. (2004). Comparative in vitro activity of a pharmacokinetically enhanced oral formulation of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (2000/125 mg twice daily) against 9172 respiratory isolates collected worldwide in 2000. International Journal of Infectious Diseases : IJID : Official Publication of the International Society for Infectious Diseases, 8(6), 362-73.
Koeth LM, et al. Comparative in Vitro Activity of a Pharmacokinetically Enhanced Oral Formulation of Amoxicillin/clavulanic Acid (2000/125 Mg Twice Daily) Against 9172 Respiratory Isolates Collected Worldwide in 2000. Int J Infect Dis. 2004;8(6):362-73. PubMed PMID: 15494258.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Comparative in vitro activity of a pharmacokinetically enhanced oral formulation of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (2000/125 mg twice daily) against 9172 respiratory isolates collected worldwide in 2000. AU - Koeth,Laura M, AU - Jacobs,Michael R, AU - Good,Caryn E, AU - Bajaksouzian,Saralee, AU - Windau,Anne, AU - Jakielaszek,Charles, AU - Saunders,Kay A, PY - 2003/02/24/received PY - 2003/12/10/revised PY - 2004/02/09/accepted PY - 2004/10/21/pubmed PY - 2005/1/29/medline PY - 2004/10/21/entrez SP - 362 EP - 73 JF - International journal of infectious diseases : IJID : official publication of the International Society for Infectious Diseases JO - Int J Infect Dis VL - 8 IS - 6 N2 - OBJECTIVES: A new, pharmacokinetically enhanced, oral formulation of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid has been developed to overcome resistance in the major bacterial respiratory pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae, while maintaining excellent activity against Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis, including beta-lactamase producing strains. This study was conducted to provide in vitro susceptibility data for amoxicillin/clavulanic acid and 16 comparator agents against the key respiratory tract pathogens. METHODS: Susceptibility testing was performed on 9172 isolates collected from 95 centers in North America, Europe, Australia, and Hong Kong by broth microdilution MIC determination, according to NCCLS methods, using amoxicillin/clavulanic acid and 16 comparator antimicrobial agents. Results were interpreted according to NCCLS breakpoints and pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) breakpoints based on oral dosing regimens. RESULTS: Overall, 93.5% of Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates were susceptible to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid at the current susceptible breakpoint of < or =2 microg/mL and 97.3% at the PK/PD susceptible breakpoint of < or =4 microg/mL for the extended release formulation. Proportions of isolates that were penicillin intermediate and resistant were 13% and 16.5%, respectively, while 25% were macrolide resistant and 21.8% trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole resistant. 21.9% of Haemophilus influenzae were beta-lactamase producers and 16.8% trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole resistant, >99% of isolates were susceptible to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, cefixime, ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin at NCCLS breakpoints. The most active agents against Moraxella catarrhalis were amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, macrolides, cefixime, fluoroquinolones, and doxycycline. Overall, 13% of Streptococcus pyogenes were resistant to macrolides. CONCLUSION: The extended release formulation of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid has potential for empiric use against many respiratory tract infections worldwide due to its activity against species resistant to many agents currently in use. SN - 1201-9712 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/15494258/Comparative_in_vitro_activity_of_a_pharmacokinetically_enhanced_oral_formulation_of_amoxicillin/clavulanic_acid__2000/125_mg_twice_daily__against_9172_respiratory_isolates_collected_worldwide_in_2000_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S1201-9712(04)00100-6 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -