Healthy Eating Index and C-reactive protein concentration: findings from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III, 1988-1994.Eur J Clin Nutr. 2005 Feb; 59(2):278-83.EJ
To examine whether diet quality is associated with C-reactive protein concentration.
Cross-sectional study using data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1988-1994).
Representative sample of the US population.
A total of 13 811 men and women aged >/=20 y.
We examined the cross-sectional associations between the Healthy Eating Index (HEI), a measure of diet quality according to the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, and serum C-reactive protein concentration. Dietary information was assessed using a 24-h recall.
After adjustment for age, sex, race or ethnicity, education, smoking status, cotinine concentration, body mass index, waist-hip-ratio, aspirin use, alcohol use, physical activity level, and energy intake, HEI score was inversely associated with an elevated C-reactive protein concentration in logistic regression analysis (odds ratio per 10 unit change: 0.92; 95th confidence interval (CI): 0.86-0.99). Among the components, only the score for grain consumption was inversely associated with an elevated C-reactive protein concentration. Compared with participants in the lowest quintile of number of servings of grain consumption, the adjusted odds ratios of having an elevated C-reactive protein concentration for participants in the second, third, fourth, and fifth quintiles were 0.87 (95th CI: 0.67, 1.12), 0.85 (95th CI: 0.69, 1.06), 0.79 (95th CI: 0.65, 0.96), and 0.68 (95th CI: 0.52, 0.88), respectively.
Grain consumption may reduce inflammation. Our findings require confirmation.