Do dietary lycopene and other carotenoids protect against prostate cancer?Int J Cancer. 2005 Mar 01; 113(6):1010-4.IJ
To determine whether dietary intake of lycopene and other carotenoids has an etiological association with prostate cancer, a case-control study was conducted in Hangzhou, southeast China during 2001-2002. The cases were 130 incident patients with histologically confirmed adenocarcinoma of the prostate. The controls were 274 hospital inpatients without prostate cancer or any other malignant diseases. Information on usual food consumption, including vegetables and fruits, was collected by face-to-face interviews using a structured food frequency questionnaire. The risks of prostate cancer for the intake of carotenoids and selected vegetables and fruits rich in carotenoids were assessed using multivariate logistic regression, adjusting for age, locality, education, income, body mass index, marital status, number of children, family history of prostate cancer, tea drinking, total fat and caloric intake. The prostate cancer risk declined with increasing consumption of lycopene, alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, beta-cryptoxanthin, lutein and zeaxanthin. Intake of tomatoes, pumpkin, spinach, watermelon and citrus fruits were also inversely associated with the prostate cancer risk. The adjusted odds ratios for the highest versus the lowest quartiles of intake were 0.18 (95% CI: 0.08-0.41) for lycopene, 0.43 (95% CI: 0.21-0.85) for alpha-carotene, 0.34 (95% CI: 0.17-0.69) for beta-carotene, 0.15 (95% CI: 0.06-0.34) for beta-cryptoxanthin and 0.02 (95% CI: 0.01-0.10) for lutein and zeaxanthin. The corresponding dose-response relationships were also significant, suggesting that vegetables and fruits rich in lycopene and other carotenoids may be protective against prostate cancer.