Increased D1 dopamine receptor signaling in levodopa-induced dyskinesia.Ann Neurol. 2005 Jan; 57(1):17-26.AN
Involuntary movements, or dyskinesia, represent a debilitating complication of levodopa therapy for Parkinson's disease. Although changes affecting D(1) and D(2) dopamine receptors have been studied in association with this condition, no causal relationship has yet been established. Taking advantage of a monkey brain bank constituted to study levodopa-induced dyskinesia, we report changes affecting D(1) and D(2) dopamine receptors within the striatum of normal, parkinsonian, nondyskinetic levodopa-treated parkinsonian, and dyskinetic levodopa-treated parkinsonian animals. Whereas D(1) receptor expression itself is not related to dyskinesia, D(1) sensitivity per D(1) receptor measured by D(1) agonist-induced [(35)S]GTPgammaS binding is linearly related to dyskinesia. Moreover, the striata of dyskinetic animals show higher levels of cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) and of the dopamine- and cAMP-regulated phosphoprotein of 32kDa (DARPP-32). Our data suggest that levodopa-induced dyskinesia results from increased dopamine D(1) receptor-mediated transmission at the level of the direct pathway.