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Comparison of the Microgenics CEDIA heroin metabolite (6-AM) and the Roche Abuscreen ONLINE opiate immunoassays for the detection of heroin use in forensic urine samples.
J Anal Toxicol. 2004 Sep; 28(6):489-93.JA

Abstract

Current Department of Defense (DoD) and Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) procedures for the detection of heroin abuse by testing urine utilize an initial opiate (codeine/morphine) immunoassay (IA) screen followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) confirmation of 6-acetylmorphine (6-AM), if the morphine concentration is above established cutoff. An alternative to the current opiates screen for heroin abuse is the direct IA for the metabolite of heroin, 6-acetylmorphine. In this regard, the performance of the Microgenics CEDIA heroin metabolite (6-AM) screening reagent was assessed. This evaluation was conducted on the P module of a Hitachi Modular automated IA analyzer calibrated using 6-AM at 10 ng/mL. Reproducibility, linearity, accuracy, sensitivity, and interferences associated with use of the 6-AM IA reagent were evaluated. The IA reagent precision (percent coefficient of variation (%CV)) around each of seven standards was less than 0.63%, with a linearity (r(2)) value of 0.9951. A total of 37,713 active duty service members' urine samples were analyzed simultaneously using the CEDIA heroin metabolite (6-AM) reagent and the Roche Abuscreen ONLINE opiate reagent to evaluate both the prevalence rate of 6-AM in the demographic group and the sensitivity and specificity of the reagents for the detection of heroin use. Of the 37,713 samples tested using the CEDIA heroin metabolite (6-AM) reagent, three samples screened positive at the DoD and HHS cutoff of 10 ng/mL. One of the three samples confirmed positive for 6-AM by GC-MS above the cutoff of 10 ng/mL, the two remaining samples confirmed negative for 6-AM at a GC-MS limit of detection (LOD) of 2.1 ng/mL. In contrast, the Roche Abuscreen ONLINE opiate IA produced 74 opiate-positive results for codeine/morphine, with 6 of the 74 specimens confirming positive for morphine above the DoD cutoff concentration of 4000 ng/mL (8% DoD morphine confirmation rate), only one of the 74 opiate-positive screen specimens confirmed positive for 6-AM above the 10 ng/mL GC-MS cutoff concentration. As a further check of the sensitivity and specificity of the Microgenics 6-AM IA reagent, human urine samples (n = 87) known to contain 6-AM by GC-MS, were re-analyzed using both IA reagents. All 87 of the samples screened positive using the CEDIA heroin metabolite (6-AM) assay. However, using the Roche ONLINE opiate reagent, 12 of the known 6-AM positives screened negative at the DoD and HHS screening cutoff of 2000 ng/mL (morphine). Of the remaining 75 samples that screened positive by the ONLINE opiate reagent, five of the samples did not contain morphine above the DoD GC-MS cutoff concentration of 4000 ng/mL and would not have required 6-AM analysis. However, under the HHS GC-MS morphine cutoff concentration of 2000 ng/mL all 75 samples would have required 6-AM analysis. Furthermore, using the current DoD opiate screen, 17 out of 87 samples known to contain 6-AM would have gone undetected (19.5% false-negative rate); additionally, even under the more stringent HHS opiate screening standards 12 out of the 87 samples known to contain 6-AM would also have gone undetected (13.8% false-negative rate). The Microgenics CEDIA heroin metabolite (6-AM) reagent assay appears well adapted for the rapid and specific detection of heroin abuse as an alternative for, or an adjunct test to, the current opiates (codeine/morphine) IA screening procedure.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Office of the Armed Forces Medical Examiner, Division of Forensic Toxicology, AFIP, 1413 Research Blvd., Bldg. 102, Rockville, Maryland 20850, USA. Holler@afip.osd.milNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Comparative Study
Evaluation Study
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

15516301

Citation

Holler, Justin M., et al. "Comparison of the Microgenics CEDIA Heroin Metabolite (6-AM) and the Roche Abuscreen ONLINE Opiate Immunoassays for the Detection of Heroin Use in Forensic Urine Samples." Journal of Analytical Toxicology, vol. 28, no. 6, 2004, pp. 489-93.
Holler JM, Bosy TZ, Klette KL, et al. Comparison of the Microgenics CEDIA heroin metabolite (6-AM) and the Roche Abuscreen ONLINE opiate immunoassays for the detection of heroin use in forensic urine samples. J Anal Toxicol. 2004;28(6):489-93.
Holler, J. M., Bosy, T. Z., Klette, K. L., Wiegand, R., Jemionek, J., & Jacobs, A. (2004). Comparison of the Microgenics CEDIA heroin metabolite (6-AM) and the Roche Abuscreen ONLINE opiate immunoassays for the detection of heroin use in forensic urine samples. Journal of Analytical Toxicology, 28(6), 489-93.
Holler JM, et al. Comparison of the Microgenics CEDIA Heroin Metabolite (6-AM) and the Roche Abuscreen ONLINE Opiate Immunoassays for the Detection of Heroin Use in Forensic Urine Samples. J Anal Toxicol. 2004;28(6):489-93. PubMed PMID: 15516301.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Comparison of the Microgenics CEDIA heroin metabolite (6-AM) and the Roche Abuscreen ONLINE opiate immunoassays for the detection of heroin use in forensic urine samples. AU - Holler,Justin M, AU - Bosy,Thomas Z, AU - Klette,Kevin L, AU - Wiegand,Russel, AU - Jemionek,John, AU - Jacobs,Aaron, PY - 2004/11/2/pubmed PY - 2005/2/5/medline PY - 2004/11/2/entrez SP - 489 EP - 93 JF - Journal of analytical toxicology JO - J Anal Toxicol VL - 28 IS - 6 N2 - Current Department of Defense (DoD) and Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) procedures for the detection of heroin abuse by testing urine utilize an initial opiate (codeine/morphine) immunoassay (IA) screen followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) confirmation of 6-acetylmorphine (6-AM), if the morphine concentration is above established cutoff. An alternative to the current opiates screen for heroin abuse is the direct IA for the metabolite of heroin, 6-acetylmorphine. In this regard, the performance of the Microgenics CEDIA heroin metabolite (6-AM) screening reagent was assessed. This evaluation was conducted on the P module of a Hitachi Modular automated IA analyzer calibrated using 6-AM at 10 ng/mL. Reproducibility, linearity, accuracy, sensitivity, and interferences associated with use of the 6-AM IA reagent were evaluated. The IA reagent precision (percent coefficient of variation (%CV)) around each of seven standards was less than 0.63%, with a linearity (r(2)) value of 0.9951. A total of 37,713 active duty service members' urine samples were analyzed simultaneously using the CEDIA heroin metabolite (6-AM) reagent and the Roche Abuscreen ONLINE opiate reagent to evaluate both the prevalence rate of 6-AM in the demographic group and the sensitivity and specificity of the reagents for the detection of heroin use. Of the 37,713 samples tested using the CEDIA heroin metabolite (6-AM) reagent, three samples screened positive at the DoD and HHS cutoff of 10 ng/mL. One of the three samples confirmed positive for 6-AM by GC-MS above the cutoff of 10 ng/mL, the two remaining samples confirmed negative for 6-AM at a GC-MS limit of detection (LOD) of 2.1 ng/mL. In contrast, the Roche Abuscreen ONLINE opiate IA produced 74 opiate-positive results for codeine/morphine, with 6 of the 74 specimens confirming positive for morphine above the DoD cutoff concentration of 4000 ng/mL (8% DoD morphine confirmation rate), only one of the 74 opiate-positive screen specimens confirmed positive for 6-AM above the 10 ng/mL GC-MS cutoff concentration. As a further check of the sensitivity and specificity of the Microgenics 6-AM IA reagent, human urine samples (n = 87) known to contain 6-AM by GC-MS, were re-analyzed using both IA reagents. All 87 of the samples screened positive using the CEDIA heroin metabolite (6-AM) assay. However, using the Roche ONLINE opiate reagent, 12 of the known 6-AM positives screened negative at the DoD and HHS screening cutoff of 2000 ng/mL (morphine). Of the remaining 75 samples that screened positive by the ONLINE opiate reagent, five of the samples did not contain morphine above the DoD GC-MS cutoff concentration of 4000 ng/mL and would not have required 6-AM analysis. However, under the HHS GC-MS morphine cutoff concentration of 2000 ng/mL all 75 samples would have required 6-AM analysis. Furthermore, using the current DoD opiate screen, 17 out of 87 samples known to contain 6-AM would have gone undetected (19.5% false-negative rate); additionally, even under the more stringent HHS opiate screening standards 12 out of the 87 samples known to contain 6-AM would also have gone undetected (13.8% false-negative rate). The Microgenics CEDIA heroin metabolite (6-AM) reagent assay appears well adapted for the rapid and specific detection of heroin abuse as an alternative for, or an adjunct test to, the current opiates (codeine/morphine) IA screening procedure. SN - 0146-4760 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/15516301/Comparison_of_the_Microgenics_CEDIA_heroin_metabolite__6_AM__and_the_Roche_Abuscreen_ONLINE_opiate_immunoassays_for_the_detection_of_heroin_use_in_forensic_urine_samples_ L2 - https://academic.oup.com/jat/article-lookup/doi/10.1093/jat/28.6.489 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -