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Smoking and caffeine have a synergistic detrimental effect on aortic stiffness and wave reflections.

Abstract

OBJECTIVES

We investigated the acute and chronic combined effect of cigarette smoking and caffeine intake on aortic stiffness and wave reflections.

BACKGROUND

We have shown that smoking and caffeine separately increase arterial stiffness. Aortic stiffness and wave reflections are important determinants of the efficient performance of the cardiovascular system and prognosticators of cardiovascular risk.

METHODS

The acute effects of smoking (one cigarette), caffeine (200 mg, equivalent to 2 cups of coffee), and smoking plus caffeine were studied in 24 healthy subjects according to a randomized, placebo- and sham procedure-controlled crossover design. The chronic effect of smoking and caffeine was studied in a population study that enrolled 160 healthy subjects.

RESULTS

Acute study: there was a significant interaction between caffeine and smoking with regard to pulse-wave velocity (p < 0.01) and augmentation index (p < 0.05). When smoking followed caffeine intake, pulse-wave velocity and augmentation index increased further by 0.52 m/s and 13.4%, respectively, reaching a total of 0.85 m/s and 17.4%, 0.17 m/s and 9.2% in excess of the mere sum of caffeine effect (0.33 m/s and 4%) alone and smoking effect alone (0.35 m/s and 4.2%). Population study: there was a significant interaction of chronic coffee consumption and smoking regarding pulse-wave velocity (p < 0.05) and augmentation index (p = 0.001).

CONCLUSIONS

The present study shows, for the first time, that when smoking and caffeine intake are combined, they interact and exert a synergistic, unfavorable effect on aortic stiffness and wave reflections on both an acute and chronic basis.

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  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    1st Department of Cardiology, Athens Medical School, Hippokration Hospital, Athens, Greece. cvlachop@otenet.gr

    , , , , ,

    Source

    MeSH

    Adult
    Aortic Diseases
    Blood Flow Velocity
    Blood Pressure
    Caffeine
    Central Nervous System Stimulants
    Cross-Over Studies
    Drug Synergism
    Female
    Heart Rate
    Humans
    Male
    Myocardial Contraction
    Pulsatile Flow
    Smoking
    Statistics as Topic
    Stroke Volume

    Pub Type(s)

    Clinical Trial
    Comparative Study
    Journal Article
    Randomized Controlled Trial

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    15519028

    Citation

    Vlachopoulos, Charalambos, et al. "Smoking and Caffeine Have a Synergistic Detrimental Effect On Aortic Stiffness and Wave Reflections." Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 44, no. 9, 2004, pp. 1911-7.
    Vlachopoulos C, Kosmopoulou F, Panagiotakos D, et al. Smoking and caffeine have a synergistic detrimental effect on aortic stiffness and wave reflections. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2004;44(9):1911-7.
    Vlachopoulos, C., Kosmopoulou, F., Panagiotakos, D., Ioakeimidis, N., Alexopoulos, N., Pitsavos, C., & Stefanadis, C. (2004). Smoking and caffeine have a synergistic detrimental effect on aortic stiffness and wave reflections. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 44(9), pp. 1911-7.
    Vlachopoulos C, et al. Smoking and Caffeine Have a Synergistic Detrimental Effect On Aortic Stiffness and Wave Reflections. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2004 Nov 2;44(9):1911-7. PubMed PMID: 15519028.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - Smoking and caffeine have a synergistic detrimental effect on aortic stiffness and wave reflections. AU - Vlachopoulos,Charalambos, AU - Kosmopoulou,Foteini, AU - Panagiotakos,Demosthenes, AU - Ioakeimidis,Nikolaos, AU - Alexopoulos,Nikolaos, AU - Pitsavos,Christos, AU - Stefanadis,Christodoulos, PY - 2004/05/11/received PY - 2004/07/25/revised PY - 2004/07/28/accepted PY - 2004/11/3/pubmed PY - 2005/1/19/medline PY - 2004/11/3/entrez SP - 1911 EP - 7 JF - Journal of the American College of Cardiology JO - J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. VL - 44 IS - 9 N2 - OBJECTIVES: We investigated the acute and chronic combined effect of cigarette smoking and caffeine intake on aortic stiffness and wave reflections. BACKGROUND: We have shown that smoking and caffeine separately increase arterial stiffness. Aortic stiffness and wave reflections are important determinants of the efficient performance of the cardiovascular system and prognosticators of cardiovascular risk. METHODS: The acute effects of smoking (one cigarette), caffeine (200 mg, equivalent to 2 cups of coffee), and smoking plus caffeine were studied in 24 healthy subjects according to a randomized, placebo- and sham procedure-controlled crossover design. The chronic effect of smoking and caffeine was studied in a population study that enrolled 160 healthy subjects. RESULTS: Acute study: there was a significant interaction between caffeine and smoking with regard to pulse-wave velocity (p < 0.01) and augmentation index (p < 0.05). When smoking followed caffeine intake, pulse-wave velocity and augmentation index increased further by 0.52 m/s and 13.4%, respectively, reaching a total of 0.85 m/s and 17.4%, 0.17 m/s and 9.2% in excess of the mere sum of caffeine effect (0.33 m/s and 4%) alone and smoking effect alone (0.35 m/s and 4.2%). Population study: there was a significant interaction of chronic coffee consumption and smoking regarding pulse-wave velocity (p < 0.05) and augmentation index (p = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The present study shows, for the first time, that when smoking and caffeine intake are combined, they interact and exert a synergistic, unfavorable effect on aortic stiffness and wave reflections on both an acute and chronic basis. SN - 0735-1097 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/15519028/Smoking_and_caffeine_have_a_synergistic_detrimental_effect_on_aortic_stiffness_and_wave_reflections_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0735-1097(04)01632-8 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -