Localization of vanilloid receptor 1 (TRPV1/VR1)-like immunoreactivity in goldfish and zebrafish retinas: restriction to photoreceptor synaptic ribbons.J Neurocytol 2004; 33(4):441-52JN
The vanilloid receptor type 1 (TRPV1/VR1) is a non-specific calcium-permeable ionotropic cation channel expressed in the peripheral sensory system as well as in the central nervous system. An endogenous ligand for TRPV1 is arachidonoyl ethanolamide (anandamide), which also activates the metabotropic cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1). Previous studies in this laboratory reported CB1 receptors and CB1-mediated effects on voltage-gated currents in goldfish cones and bipolar cells. In this study, we show TRPV1-like-immunoreactivity (TRPV1-L-IR) by immunoblot analysis of goldfish retina and rat brain homogenates with a guinea pig polyclonal antibody against the C-terminus of the rat TRPV1. Light-level immunocytochemistry showed restriction of the guinea pig-TRPV1 antibody to a very narrow band in the outer plexiform layer in goldfish and zebrafish retinas. However, no immunoreactivity was detected using rabbit-polyclonal antibodies against the C or N-termini of the rat TRPV1. Pre and post-embedding electron microscopy (EM) immunocytochemistry revealed that TRPV1-L-IR (using the guinea pig antibody) was restricted to synaptic ribbons of all cones and many rods, but never was observed at the synaptic ribbons of bipolar cells. While pre-embedded tissue showed diffuse label associated only with photoreceptor-synaptic ribbons, analysis of post-embedded tissue showed label tightly restricted to synaptic ribbons of all cones and many rods. Oblique sections showed that immunogold particles were confined to the outer electron dense region of the ribbons, with few or no gold particles in the ribbon core or associated with tethers or vesicles. Although TRPV1-L-IR described here, does not necessarily represent TRPV1 antigen associated with synaptic ribbons, these data provide an unequivocal label with which to study the functional dynamics of ribbon formation and degradation in teleost photoreceptors.