Differential antioxidant properties of red wine in water soluble and lipid soluble peroxyl radical generating systems.Mol Cell Biochem. 2004 Aug; 263(1-2):211-5.MC
Red wine and its components have been shown to possess cardioprotective and anti-atherogenic effects. Additionally, red wine and many of its components like catechin, epicatechin, rutin, transresveratrol and quercetin possess antioxidant properties. Oxidized low density lipoprotein (LDL) is involved in the development of an atherosclerotic lesion. Red wine, therefore, may be anti-atherogenic because of its antioxidant effects on LDL modification. This study examined the antioxidant effects of catechin, epicatechin, rutin, transresveratrol, quercetin and Merlot wines on LDL oxidation. Merlot was chosen because although other red wines have been tested, limited information exists for this variety. Oxidation was carried out with AAPH (2,2'-Azo-bis(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride) and AMVN (2,2'-Azo-bis(2,4-dimethylvaleronitrile)), as water and lipid soluble peroxyl radical generating systems (FRGS), respectively. This allowed us to determine the lipophilic antioxidant characteristics of the wine and its components. Conjugated diene assays were used to measure LDL oxidation over 6 hrs. In an AAPH system, all polyphenolic compounds except transresveratrol displayed an antioxidant effect. LDL oxidation by AAPH was also inhibited by aliquots of Merlot wine. No antioxidant effects were observed in an AMVN environment except for a mild antioxidant effect by quercetin. Surprisingly, incubation of LDL with Merlot wine strongly protected against oxidation by AMVN. In summary, the five phenolic compounds displayed antioxidant effects in a water soluble free radical generating system, but only quercetin showed this in a lipid soluble one. However, red wine inhibited LDL oxidation by both water and lipid soluble free radical generating systems. Our data suggest, therefore, that red wines contain unidentified antioxidants that provide protection against LDL oxidation within a lipid soluble environment.