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Lifestyle related risk factors in the aetiology of gastro-oesophageal reflux.

Abstract

BACKGROUND/AIM

The aetiology of gastro-oesophageal reflux is largely unknown. The authors' aim was to examine the relation between lifestyle habits and gastro-oesophageal reflux symptoms.

SUBJECTS

Participants of two consecutive public health surveys in Nord-Trondelag, Norway.

METHODS

In a case control study within the two public health surveys, 3153 individuals who in the second survey reported severe heartburn or regurgitation during the last 12 months were defined as cases, while 40 210 people without reflux symptoms constituted the control group. The risk of reflux symptoms was estimated and multivariately calculated as odds ratios in relation to exposure to tobacco smoking, alcohol, coffee, tea, table salt, cereal fibres, and physical exercise.

RESULTS

There was a significant dose response association between tobacco smoking and reflux symptoms. Among people who had smoked daily for more than 20 years the odds ratio was 1.7 (95% confidence interval 1.5 to 1.9) compared with non-smokers. A similar positive association was found for table salt intake. The odds ratio for reflux was 1.7 (95% CI 1.4 to 2.0) among those who always used extra table salt compared with those who never did so. We found moderately strong negative associations between the risk of reflux and exposure to coffee, bread high in dietary fibre content, and frequent physical exercise. Intake of alcohol or tea did not affect the risk of reflux.

CONCLUSIONS

Tobacco smoking and table salt intake seem to be risk factors for gastro-oesophageal reflux symptoms. Dietary fibres and physical exercise may protect against reflux. Alcohol, coffee, and tea do not seem to be risk factors for reflux.

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  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    Department of Surgery, Karolinska Hospital, SE-171 76 Stockholm, Sweden. magnus.nilsson@ks.se

    , , ,

    Source

    Gut 53:12 2004 Dec pg 1730-5

    MeSH

    Adult
    Age Distribution
    Aged
    Aged, 80 and over
    Alcohol Drinking
    Beverages
    Case-Control Studies
    Diet
    Exercise
    Female
    Gastroesophageal Reflux
    Health Surveys
    Humans
    Life Style
    Male
    Middle Aged
    Risk Factors
    Sex Distribution
    Smoking
    Sodium Chloride, Dietary

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article
    Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    15542505

    Citation

    Nilsson, M, et al. "Lifestyle Related Risk Factors in the Aetiology of Gastro-oesophageal Reflux." Gut, vol. 53, no. 12, 2004, pp. 1730-5.
    Nilsson M, Johnsen R, Ye W, et al. Lifestyle related risk factors in the aetiology of gastro-oesophageal reflux. Gut. 2004;53(12):1730-5.
    Nilsson, M., Johnsen, R., Ye, W., Hveem, K., & Lagergren, J. (2004). Lifestyle related risk factors in the aetiology of gastro-oesophageal reflux. Gut, 53(12), pp. 1730-5.
    Nilsson M, et al. Lifestyle Related Risk Factors in the Aetiology of Gastro-oesophageal Reflux. Gut. 2004;53(12):1730-5. PubMed PMID: 15542505.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - Lifestyle related risk factors in the aetiology of gastro-oesophageal reflux. AU - Nilsson,M, AU - Johnsen,R, AU - Ye,W, AU - Hveem,K, AU - Lagergren,J, PY - 2004/11/16/pubmed PY - 2004/12/16/medline PY - 2004/11/16/entrez SP - 1730 EP - 5 JF - Gut JO - Gut VL - 53 IS - 12 N2 - BACKGROUND/AIM: The aetiology of gastro-oesophageal reflux is largely unknown. The authors' aim was to examine the relation between lifestyle habits and gastro-oesophageal reflux symptoms. SUBJECTS: Participants of two consecutive public health surveys in Nord-Trondelag, Norway. METHODS: In a case control study within the two public health surveys, 3153 individuals who in the second survey reported severe heartburn or regurgitation during the last 12 months were defined as cases, while 40 210 people without reflux symptoms constituted the control group. The risk of reflux symptoms was estimated and multivariately calculated as odds ratios in relation to exposure to tobacco smoking, alcohol, coffee, tea, table salt, cereal fibres, and physical exercise. RESULTS: There was a significant dose response association between tobacco smoking and reflux symptoms. Among people who had smoked daily for more than 20 years the odds ratio was 1.7 (95% confidence interval 1.5 to 1.9) compared with non-smokers. A similar positive association was found for table salt intake. The odds ratio for reflux was 1.7 (95% CI 1.4 to 2.0) among those who always used extra table salt compared with those who never did so. We found moderately strong negative associations between the risk of reflux and exposure to coffee, bread high in dietary fibre content, and frequent physical exercise. Intake of alcohol or tea did not affect the risk of reflux. CONCLUSIONS: Tobacco smoking and table salt intake seem to be risk factors for gastro-oesophageal reflux symptoms. Dietary fibres and physical exercise may protect against reflux. Alcohol, coffee, and tea do not seem to be risk factors for reflux. SN - 0017-5749 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/15542505/Lifestyle_related_risk_factors_in_the_aetiology_of_gastro_oesophageal_reflux_ L2 - http://gut.bmj.com/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=15542505 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -