An RCT pilot study to test the effects of intravenous midazolam as a conscious sedation technique for anxious children requiring dental treatment--an alternative to general anaesthesia.Br Dent J. 2004 Nov 13; 197(9):553-8; discussion 549.BD
To add to the evidence base for acceptable and effective paediatric conscious sedation techniques in dental primary care.
To compare three conscious sedation techniques for primary care as an alternative to dental general anaesthesia (DGA) in children. To assess the feasibility and practicality of running the trial in general dental practice. To form the basis for sample size calculations and assess scales of measurement.
Single centre, randomised control trial (RCT).
Queensway Anxiety Management Clinic (QAMC). A primary care based general and referral dental practice for the management of anxious patients.
SUBJECTS, MATERIALS AND METHODS
Sixty five children too anxious for management with relative analgesia, requiring invasive dental procedure for which dental general anaesthesia (DGA) will be required if an alternative cannot be found.
Group 1 (n = 20) - A combination of inhaled medical air and titrated intravenous midazolam. Group 2 (n = 22) - A combination of inhaled 40% nitrous oxide in oxygen and titrated intravenous midazolam. Group 3 (n = 23) - A combination of an inhaled mixture of 0.3% sevoflurane and 40% nitrous oxide in oxygen with titrated intravenous midazolam.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES
Successful completion of the intended dental treatment with a child who is co-operative and responsive to verbal commands.
Fifty per cent (ten children) successfully completed treatment in Group 1, 73% (16 children) in Group 2 and 83% (19 children) in Group 3. This difference was not significant at a 5% level (chi(2) = 5.53, df = 2, P = 0.07) Of the total of 20 failures, eight children in Group 1 and one child in Group 2 were successfully treated with the addition of sevoflurane and nitrous oxide in oxygen. Only two children required referral to a hospital setting for DGA and the remaining nine children were managed with an alternative conscious sedation technique.
This pilot shows that intravenous midazolam especially in combination with the addition of inhaled nitrous oxide or sevoflurane and nitrous oxide were promising safe and effective techniques, sufficient to justify progression to a definitive RCT with appropriate methods.