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A simple virtual instrument to monitor surgeons' workload while they perform minimally invasive surgery tasks.
Stud Health Technol Inform. 2004; 98:363-9.SH

Abstract

Monitoring the workload of surgeons while they perform minimally invasive surgery (MIS) tasks can help them learn to reduce effort as they improve performance and can help develop better human-technology interfaces for MIS. To monitor workload, we developed a personal computer based virtual instrument (VI) that uses orientation sensors worn on the surgeon's left and right upper arms to measure upper arm flexion, abduction, and outward rotation angles. From these sensors, we compute indices of effort and integrated effort. One effort index is the upper arm elevation angle. The time integral of this index provides a corresponding integrated effort index. A second effort index is hand velocity. Hand trajectory length is the corresponding integrated effort index. We used the workload monitor VI to study 29 volunteer surgeon subjects while they performed a knot-tying task in a laparoscopic trainer at a standard MIS station. For five of these subjects, we also monitored the workload indices while they performed simulated MIS tasks on a virtual reality Procedicus MIST System. For the subject group, integrated effort, but not level of effort, decreased with increased performance. At each performance level, some subjects worked much harder than others, suggesting that these subjects could benefit by learning to reduce their effort levels. The workload measures from the arm sensors augmented the performance measures provided by the MIST system.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Biomedical Engineering, California State University, Sacramento, 6000 J Street, Sacramento, CA 95819-6019, USA.No affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

15544306

Citation

Smith, Warren D., and Ramon Berguer. "A Simple Virtual Instrument to Monitor Surgeons' Workload While They Perform Minimally Invasive Surgery Tasks." Studies in Health Technology and Informatics, vol. 98, 2004, pp. 363-9.
Smith WD, Berguer R. A simple virtual instrument to monitor surgeons' workload while they perform minimally invasive surgery tasks. Stud Health Technol Inform. 2004;98:363-9.
Smith, W. D., & Berguer, R. (2004). A simple virtual instrument to monitor surgeons' workload while they perform minimally invasive surgery tasks. Studies in Health Technology and Informatics, 98, 363-9.
Smith WD, Berguer R. A Simple Virtual Instrument to Monitor Surgeons' Workload While They Perform Minimally Invasive Surgery Tasks. Stud Health Technol Inform. 2004;98:363-9. PubMed PMID: 15544306.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - A simple virtual instrument to monitor surgeons' workload while they perform minimally invasive surgery tasks. AU - Smith,Warren D, AU - Berguer,Ramon, PY - 2004/11/17/pubmed PY - 2004/12/31/medline PY - 2004/11/17/entrez SP - 363 EP - 9 JF - Studies in health technology and informatics JO - Stud Health Technol Inform VL - 98 N2 - Monitoring the workload of surgeons while they perform minimally invasive surgery (MIS) tasks can help them learn to reduce effort as they improve performance and can help develop better human-technology interfaces for MIS. To monitor workload, we developed a personal computer based virtual instrument (VI) that uses orientation sensors worn on the surgeon's left and right upper arms to measure upper arm flexion, abduction, and outward rotation angles. From these sensors, we compute indices of effort and integrated effort. One effort index is the upper arm elevation angle. The time integral of this index provides a corresponding integrated effort index. A second effort index is hand velocity. Hand trajectory length is the corresponding integrated effort index. We used the workload monitor VI to study 29 volunteer surgeon subjects while they performed a knot-tying task in a laparoscopic trainer at a standard MIS station. For five of these subjects, we also monitored the workload indices while they performed simulated MIS tasks on a virtual reality Procedicus MIST System. For the subject group, integrated effort, but not level of effort, decreased with increased performance. At each performance level, some subjects worked much harder than others, suggesting that these subjects could benefit by learning to reduce their effort levels. The workload measures from the arm sensors augmented the performance measures provided by the MIST system. SN - 0926-9630 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/15544306/A_simple_virtual_instrument_to_monitor_surgeons'_workload_while_they_perform_minimally_invasive_surgery_tasks_ L2 - https://ebooks.iospress.nl/Extern/EnterMedLine.aspx?ISSN=0926-9630&Volume=98&SPage=363 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -