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Increased intake of fruit and vegetables and a low-fat diet, with and without low-fat plant sterol-enriched spread consumption: effects on plasma lipoprotein and carotenoid metabolism.
J Hum Nutr Diet 2004; 17(6):561-9; quiz 571-4JH

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Regular intake of plant sterol (phytosterol)-enriched foods enhances the cholesterol lowering effect of diets. One side effect associated with plant sterol consumption is a modest reduction in plasma carotenoid concentrations. This study investigated the effect of consuming a low-fat National Cholesterol Education Programme (NCEP) Step 1 diet, including a low-fat plant sterol ester (PSE)-enriched spread on cholesterol metabolism to determine if specific dietary advice to increase daily fruit and vegetable intake could prevent reduced plasma carotenoid concentrations.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

In this randomised, crossover double-blind trial, 48 hypercholesterolaemic men received 21 g day(-1) of a low-fat PSE-enriched spread or placebo for 3 weeks, interrupted by 3 weeks washout. Individuals also adhered to a NCEP Step 1 diet and repeated 3-day food diaries monitored adherence. Specific advice was provided to increase dietary fruit and vegetable intakes. Fasting blood samples were collected at pre- and post-intervention for lipoprotein and carotenoid analysis.

RESULTS

Plasma total and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol concentrations were significantly (P <0.05) reduced, by 4.6 and 7.1%, respectively, after the PSE-enriched low-fat spread. Plasma apo B concentrations were significantly (P <0.0005) lower after the PSE spread. PSE consumption was also associated with significantly (P <0.05) lower total plasma beta-carotene concentrations, but this change was not significant after lipid standardisation. PSE consumption had no effect on retinol, alpha-carotene, gamma-tocopherol, alpha-tocopherol, lutein, zeaxanthin, beta-crypyoxanthin or lycopene concentrations.

CONCLUSION

Dietary advice to increase daily fruit and vegetable consumption may be effective in preventing a reduction in plasma carotenoid concentrations previously associated with PSE consumption. Further, PSE incorporated in a low-fat spread and consumed as part of a NCEP Step 1 diet are effective in reducing total and LDL cholesterol.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Unit of Nutrition, Department of Clinical Medicine, Trinity Health Sciences Centre, St James's Hospital, Dublin, Ireland.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Clinical Trial
Journal Article
Randomized Controlled Trial

Language

eng

PubMed ID

15546434

Citation

Colgan, H A., et al. "Increased Intake of Fruit and Vegetables and a Low-fat Diet, With and Without Low-fat Plant Sterol-enriched Spread Consumption: Effects On Plasma Lipoprotein and Carotenoid Metabolism." Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics : the Official Journal of the British Dietetic Association, vol. 17, no. 6, 2004, pp. 561-9; quiz 571-4.
Colgan HA, Floyd S, Noone EJ, et al. Increased intake of fruit and vegetables and a low-fat diet, with and without low-fat plant sterol-enriched spread consumption: effects on plasma lipoprotein and carotenoid metabolism. J Hum Nutr Diet. 2004;17(6):561-9; quiz 571-4.
Colgan, H. A., Floyd, S., Noone, E. J., Gibney, M. J., & Roche, H. M. (2004). Increased intake of fruit and vegetables and a low-fat diet, with and without low-fat plant sterol-enriched spread consumption: effects on plasma lipoprotein and carotenoid metabolism. Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics : the Official Journal of the British Dietetic Association, 17(6), pp. 561-9; quiz 571-4.
Colgan HA, et al. Increased Intake of Fruit and Vegetables and a Low-fat Diet, With and Without Low-fat Plant Sterol-enriched Spread Consumption: Effects On Plasma Lipoprotein and Carotenoid Metabolism. J Hum Nutr Diet. 2004;17(6):561-9; quiz 571-4. PubMed PMID: 15546434.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Increased intake of fruit and vegetables and a low-fat diet, with and without low-fat plant sterol-enriched spread consumption: effects on plasma lipoprotein and carotenoid metabolism. AU - Colgan,H A, AU - Floyd,S, AU - Noone,E J, AU - Gibney,M J, AU - Roche,H M, PY - 2004/11/18/pubmed PY - 2005/6/15/medline PY - 2004/11/18/entrez SP - 561-9; quiz 571-4 JF - Journal of human nutrition and dietetics : the official journal of the British Dietetic Association JO - J Hum Nutr Diet VL - 17 IS - 6 N2 - BACKGROUND: Regular intake of plant sterol (phytosterol)-enriched foods enhances the cholesterol lowering effect of diets. One side effect associated with plant sterol consumption is a modest reduction in plasma carotenoid concentrations. This study investigated the effect of consuming a low-fat National Cholesterol Education Programme (NCEP) Step 1 diet, including a low-fat plant sterol ester (PSE)-enriched spread on cholesterol metabolism to determine if specific dietary advice to increase daily fruit and vegetable intake could prevent reduced plasma carotenoid concentrations. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this randomised, crossover double-blind trial, 48 hypercholesterolaemic men received 21 g day(-1) of a low-fat PSE-enriched spread or placebo for 3 weeks, interrupted by 3 weeks washout. Individuals also adhered to a NCEP Step 1 diet and repeated 3-day food diaries monitored adherence. Specific advice was provided to increase dietary fruit and vegetable intakes. Fasting blood samples were collected at pre- and post-intervention for lipoprotein and carotenoid analysis. RESULTS: Plasma total and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol concentrations were significantly (P <0.05) reduced, by 4.6 and 7.1%, respectively, after the PSE-enriched low-fat spread. Plasma apo B concentrations were significantly (P <0.0005) lower after the PSE spread. PSE consumption was also associated with significantly (P <0.05) lower total plasma beta-carotene concentrations, but this change was not significant after lipid standardisation. PSE consumption had no effect on retinol, alpha-carotene, gamma-tocopherol, alpha-tocopherol, lutein, zeaxanthin, beta-crypyoxanthin or lycopene concentrations. CONCLUSION: Dietary advice to increase daily fruit and vegetable consumption may be effective in preventing a reduction in plasma carotenoid concentrations previously associated with PSE consumption. Further, PSE incorporated in a low-fat spread and consumed as part of a NCEP Step 1 diet are effective in reducing total and LDL cholesterol. SN - 0952-3871 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/15546434/Increased_intake_of_fruit_and_vegetables_and_a_low_fat_diet_with_and_without_low_fat_plant_sterol_enriched_spread_consumption:_effects_on_plasma_lipoprotein_and_carotenoid_metabolism_ L2 - https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/resolve/openurl?genre=article&amp;sid=nlm:pubmed&amp;issn=0952-3871&amp;date=2004&amp;volume=17&amp;issue=6&amp;spage=561 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -