Population pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of garenoxacin in patients with community-acquired respiratory tract infections.Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2004 Dec; 48(12):4766-77.AA
Garenoxacin (T-3811ME, BMS-284756) is a novel, broad-spectrum des-F(6) quinolone currently under study for the treatment of community-acquired respiratory tract infections. This analysis assessed garenoxacin population pharmacokinetics and exposure-response relationships for safety (adverse effects [AE]) and antimicrobial activity (clinical cure and bacteriologic eradication of Streptococcus pneumoniae and the grouping of Haemophilus influenzae, Haemophilus parainfluenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis). Data were obtained from three phase II clinical trials of garenoxacin administered orally as 400 mg once daily for 5 to 10 days for the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia, acute exacerbation of chronic bronchitis, and sinusitis. Samples were taken from each patient before drug administration, 2 h following administration of the first dose, and on the day 3 to 5 visit. Individual Bayesian estimates of the fu (fraction unbound), the Cmax, and the fu for the area under the concentration-time curve from 0 to 24 h (fu AUC(0-24)) were calculated as measurements of drug exposure by using an ex vivo assessment of average protein binding. Regression analysis was performed to examine the following relationships: treatment-emergent AE incidence and AUC(0-24), Cmax, or patient factors; clinical response or bacterial eradication and drug exposure (fu Cmax/MIC, fu AUC(0-24)/MIC, and other exposure covariates); or disease and patient factors. Garenoxacin pharmacokinetics were described by a one-compartment model with first-order absorption and elimination. Clearance was dependent on creatinine clearance, ideal body weight, age, obesity, and concomitant use of pseudoephedrine. The volume of distribution was dependent on weight and gender. Patients with mild or moderate renal dysfunction had, on average, approximately a 16 or 26% decrease in clearance, respectively, compared to patients of the same gender and obesity classification with normal renal function. AE occurrence was not related to garenoxacin exposure. Overall, clinical cure and bacterial eradication rates were 91 and 90%, respectively, for S. pneumoniae and 93 and 92%, respectively, for the grouping of H. influenzae, H. parainfluenzae, and M. catarrhalis. The fu AUC(0-24)/MIC ratios were high (>90% were >200), and none of the pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic exposure measurements indexed to the MIC or other factors were significant predictors of clinical or bacteriologic response. Garenoxacin clearance was primarily related to creatinine clearance and ideal body weight. Although garenoxacin exposure was approximately 25% higher for patients with moderate renal dysfunction, this increase does not appear to be clinically significant as exposures in this patient population were not significant predictors of AE occurrence. Garenoxacin exposures were at the upper end of the exposure-response curves for measurements of antimicrobial activity, suggesting that 400 mg of garenoxacin once daily is a safe and adequate dose for the treatment of the specified community-acquired respiratory tract infections.