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Learned fear of "unseen" faces after Pavlovian, observational, and instructed fear.
Psychol Sci. 2004 Dec; 15(12):822-8.PS

Abstract

This study compared fear learning acquired through direct experience (Pavlovian conditioning) and fear learning acquired without direct experience via either observation or verbal instruction. We examined whether these three types of learning yielded differential responses to conditioned stimuli (CS+) that were presented unmasked (available to explicit awareness) or masked (not available to explicit awareness). In the Pavlovian group, the CS+ was paired with a mild shock, whereas the observational-learning group learned through observing the emotional expression of a confederate receiving shocks paired with the CS+. The instructed-learning group was told that the CS+ predicted a shock. The three groups demonstrated similar levels of learning as measured by the skin conductance response to unmasked stimuli. As in previous studies, participants also displayed a significant learning response to masked stimuli following Pavlovian conditioning. However, whereas the observational-learning group also showed this effect, the instructed-learning group did not.

Authors+Show Affiliations

New York University, Meyer Hall-Psychology C&P, New York, NY 10003, USA. Liz.phelps@nyu.eduNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

Language

eng

PubMed ID

15563327

Citation

Olsson, Andreas, and Elizabeth A. Phelps. "Learned Fear of "unseen" Faces After Pavlovian, Observational, and Instructed Fear." Psychological Science, vol. 15, no. 12, 2004, pp. 822-8.
Olsson A, Phelps EA. Learned fear of "unseen" faces after Pavlovian, observational, and instructed fear. Psychol Sci. 2004;15(12):822-8.
Olsson, A., & Phelps, E. A. (2004). Learned fear of "unseen" faces after Pavlovian, observational, and instructed fear. Psychological Science, 15(12), 822-8.
Olsson A, Phelps EA. Learned Fear of "unseen" Faces After Pavlovian, Observational, and Instructed Fear. Psychol Sci. 2004;15(12):822-8. PubMed PMID: 15563327.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Learned fear of "unseen" faces after Pavlovian, observational, and instructed fear. AU - Olsson,Andreas, AU - Phelps,Elizabeth A, PY - 2004/11/26/pubmed PY - 2005/2/3/medline PY - 2004/11/26/entrez SP - 822 EP - 8 JF - Psychological science JO - Psychol Sci VL - 15 IS - 12 N2 - This study compared fear learning acquired through direct experience (Pavlovian conditioning) and fear learning acquired without direct experience via either observation or verbal instruction. We examined whether these three types of learning yielded differential responses to conditioned stimuli (CS+) that were presented unmasked (available to explicit awareness) or masked (not available to explicit awareness). In the Pavlovian group, the CS+ was paired with a mild shock, whereas the observational-learning group learned through observing the emotional expression of a confederate receiving shocks paired with the CS+. The instructed-learning group was told that the CS+ predicted a shock. The three groups demonstrated similar levels of learning as measured by the skin conductance response to unmasked stimuli. As in previous studies, participants also displayed a significant learning response to masked stimuli following Pavlovian conditioning. However, whereas the observational-learning group also showed this effect, the instructed-learning group did not. SN - 0956-7976 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/15563327/Learned_fear_of_"unseen"_faces_after_Pavlovian_observational_and_instructed_fear_ L2 - https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1111/j.0956-7976.2004.00762.x?url_ver=Z39.88-2003&rfr_id=ori:rid:crossref.org&rfr_dat=cr_pub=pubmed DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -