Racial and ethnic differences in microalbuminuria prevalence in a diabetes population: the pathways study.J Am Soc Nephrol. 2005 Jan; 16(1):219-28.JA
The objective of this study was to determine whether racial or ethnic differences in prevalence of diabetic microalbuminuria were observed in a large primary care population in which comparable access to health care exists. A cross-sectional analysis of survey and automated laboratory data 2969 primary care diabetic patients of a large regional health maintenance organization was conducted. Study data were analyzed for racial/ethnic differences in microalbuminuria (30 to 300 mg albumin/g creatinine) and macroalbuminuria (>300 mg albumin/g creatinine) prevalence among diabetes registry-identified patients who completed a survey that assessed demographics, diabetes care, and depression. Computerized pharmacy, hospital, and laboratory data were linked to survey data for analysis. Racial/ethnic differences in the odds of microalbuminuria and macroalbuminuria were assessed by unconditional logistic regression, stratified by the presence of hypertension. Among those tested, the unadjusted prevalence of micro- or macroalbuminuria was 30.9%, which was similar among the various racial/ethnic groups. Among those without hypertension, microalbuminuria was twofold greater (odds ratio [OR] 2.01; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.14 to 3.53) and macroalbuminuria was threefold greater (OR 3.17; 95% CI 1.09 to 9.26) for Asians as compared with whites. Among those with hypertension, adjusted odds of microalbuminuria were greater for Hispanics (OR 3.82; 95% CI 1.16 to 12.57) than whites, whereas adjusted odds of macroalbuminuria were threefold greater for blacks (OR 3.32; 95% CI 1.26 to 8.76) than for whites. For most racial/ethnic minorities, hypertriglyceridemia was significantly associated with greater odds of micro- and macroalbuminuria. Among a large primary care population, racial/ethnic differences exist in the adjusted prevalence of microalbuminuria and macroalbuminuria depending on hypertension status. In this setting, racial/ethnic differences in early diabetic nephropathy were observed despite comparable access to diabetes care.