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Mounting evidence for vitamin D as an environmental factor affecting autoimmune disease prevalence.

Abstract

Low vitamin D status has been implicated in the etiology of autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, and inflammatory bowel disease. The optimal level of vitamin D intake required to support optimal immune function is not known but is likely to be at least that required for healthy bones. Experimentally, vitamin D deficiency results in the increased incidence of autoimmune disease. Mechanistically, the data point to a role for vitamin D in the development of self-tolerance. The vitamin D hormone (1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D(3)) regulates T helper cell (Th1) and dendritic cell function while inducing regulatory T-cell function. The net result is a decrease in the Th1-driven autoimmune response and decreased severity of symptoms. This review discusses the accumulating evidence pointing to a link between vitamin D and autoimmunity. Increased vitamin D intakes might decrease the incidence and severity of autoimmune diseases and the rate of bone fracture.

Authors+Show Affiliations

,

Department of Nutritional Sciences, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA. mxc69@psu.edu

Source

MeSH

Animals
Autoimmune Diseases
Diet
Humans
Models, Immunological
Prevalence
Receptors, Calcitriol
Self Tolerance
T-Lymphocytes
Vitamin D
Vitamin D Deficiency

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

15564440

Citation

Cantorna, Margherita T., and Brett D. Mahon. "Mounting Evidence for Vitamin D as an Environmental Factor Affecting Autoimmune Disease Prevalence." Experimental Biology and Medicine (Maywood, N.J.), vol. 229, no. 11, 2004, pp. 1136-42.
Cantorna MT, Mahon BD. Mounting evidence for vitamin D as an environmental factor affecting autoimmune disease prevalence. Exp Biol Med (Maywood). 2004;229(11):1136-42.
Cantorna, M. T., & Mahon, B. D. (2004). Mounting evidence for vitamin D as an environmental factor affecting autoimmune disease prevalence. Experimental Biology and Medicine (Maywood, N.J.), 229(11), pp. 1136-42.
Cantorna MT, Mahon BD. Mounting Evidence for Vitamin D as an Environmental Factor Affecting Autoimmune Disease Prevalence. Exp Biol Med (Maywood). 2004;229(11):1136-42. PubMed PMID: 15564440.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Mounting evidence for vitamin D as an environmental factor affecting autoimmune disease prevalence. AU - Cantorna,Margherita T, AU - Mahon,Brett D, PY - 2004/11/27/pubmed PY - 2005/1/14/medline PY - 2004/11/27/entrez SP - 1136 EP - 42 JF - Experimental biology and medicine (Maywood, N.J.) JO - Exp. Biol. Med. (Maywood) VL - 229 IS - 11 N2 - Low vitamin D status has been implicated in the etiology of autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, and inflammatory bowel disease. The optimal level of vitamin D intake required to support optimal immune function is not known but is likely to be at least that required for healthy bones. Experimentally, vitamin D deficiency results in the increased incidence of autoimmune disease. Mechanistically, the data point to a role for vitamin D in the development of self-tolerance. The vitamin D hormone (1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D(3)) regulates T helper cell (Th1) and dendritic cell function while inducing regulatory T-cell function. The net result is a decrease in the Th1-driven autoimmune response and decreased severity of symptoms. This review discusses the accumulating evidence pointing to a link between vitamin D and autoimmunity. Increased vitamin D intakes might decrease the incidence and severity of autoimmune diseases and the rate of bone fracture. SN - 1535-3702 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/15564440/full_citation L2 - https://medlineplus.gov/vitamind.html DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -