Induced eosinophilia and proliferation in Angiostrongylus cantonensis-infected mouse brain are associated with the induction of JAK/STAT1, IAP/NF-kappaB and MEKK1/JNK signals.J Helminthol. 2004 Dec; 78(4):311-7.JH
Eosinophilic meningitis or meningoencephalitis caused by Angiostrongylus cantonensis is endemic to the Pacific area of Asia, especially Taiwan, Thailand, and Japan. Although eosinophilia is an important clinical manifestation of A. cantonensis infection, the role of eosinophils in the progress of the infection remains to be elucidated. In this experiment, we show that A. cantonensis-induced eosinophilia and inflammation might lead to the induction of IAP/NF-kappaB, JAK/STAT1 and MEKK1/JNK signals. The phosphorylation levels of JAK and JNK, STAT1, IAP, NF-kappaB and MEKK1 protein products were significantly increased after 12 days or 15 days of A. cantonensis infection. However, no significant differences in MAPKs such as Raf, MEK-1, ERK1/2 and p38 expression were found between control and infected mice. The activation potency of JAK/STAT1, IAP/NF-kappaB and MEKK1/JNK started increasing on day 3, with significant induction on day 12 or day 15 after A. cantonensis infection. Consistent results were noted in the pathological observations, including eosinophilia, leukocyte infiltration, granulomatous reactions, and time responses in the brain tissues of infected mice. These data suggest that the development of brain injury by eosinophilia of A. cantonensis infection is associated with activation of JAK/STAT1 signals by cytokines, and/or activation of MEKK1/JNK by oxidant stress, and/or activation of NF-kappaB by increasing IAP expression.