Protein dynamics and electrostatics in the function of p-hydroxybenzoate hydroxylase.Arch Biochem Biophys. 2005 Jan 01; 433(1):297-311.AB
para-Hydroxybenzoate hydroxylase is a flavoprotein monooxygenase that catalyzes a reaction in two parts: reduction of the enzyme cofactor, FAD, by NADPH in response to binding p-hydroxybenzoate to the enzyme, then oxidation of reduced FAD by oxygen to form a hydroperoxide, which oxygenates p-hydroxybenzoate to form 3,4-dihydroxybenzoate. These diverse reactions all occur within a single polypeptide and are achieved through conformational rearrangements of the isoalloxazine ring and protein residues within the protein structure. In this review, we examine the complex dynamic behavior of the protein that enables regulated fast and specific catalysis to occur. Original research papers (principally from the past 15 years) provide the information that is used to develop a comprehensive overview of the catalytic process. Much of this information has come from detailed analysis of many specific mutants of the enzyme using rapid reaction technology, biophysical measurements, and high-resolution structures obtained by X-ray crystallography. We describe how three conformations of the enzyme provide a foundation for the catalytic cycle. One conformation has a closed active site for the conduct of the oxygen reactions, which must occur in the absence of solvent. The second conformation has a partly open active site for exchange of substrate and product, and the third conformation has a closed protein structure with the isoalloxazine ring rotated out to the surface for reaction with NADPH, which binds in a surface cleft. A fundamental feature of the enzyme is a H-bond network that connects the phenolic group of the substrate in the buried active site to the surface of the protein. This network serves to protonate and deprotonate the substrate and product in the active site to promote catalysis and regulate the coordination of conformational states for efficient catalysis.