Frequent consumption of milk, yogurt, cold breakfast cereals, peppers, and cruciferous vegetables and intakes of dietary folate and riboflavin but not vitamins B-12 and B-6 are inversely associated with serum total homocysteine concentrations in the US population.Am J Clin Nutr 2004; 80(6):1500-7AJ
Elevated circulating total homocysteine (tHcy) is an independent risk factor for vascular diseases.
We investigated the relation between dietary intakes and serum tHcy in the US population.
Data from the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1988-1994) were used to investigate the associations between food consumption frequency and dietary B vitamin intakes and serum tHcy in 5996 persons.
Multivariate-adjusted tHcy concentrations were approximately 15.2% higher in subjects who never consumed milk than in those who consumed milk >30 times/mo, approximately 6.4% higher in subjects who never consumed yogurt than in those who consumed yogurt >15 times/mo, approximately 7.4% higher in subjects who never consumed cold breakfast cereals than in those who consumed cold breakfast cereals >30 times/mo, approximately 6.3% higher in subjects who never consumed peppers (includes red, yellow, green, and hot chili peppers) than in those who consumed peppers >30 times/mo, and approximately 16.5% higher in subjects who never consumed cruciferous vegetables than in those who consumed cruciferous vegetables >30 times/mo. Consumption of citrus fruit and juices, cheese, meats, coffee, or tea had no significant association with tHcy. Folate (beta=-0.0017, P for trend=0.004) and riboflavin (beta=-0.2851, P for trend=0.027), but not vitamin B-6 (beta=0.0505, P for trend=0.70) and cobalamin (beta=-0.0035, P for trend=0.58), were inversely related to serum tHcy after adjustment for confounders.
In this population-based study, milk, yogurt, cold breakfast cereals, peppers, and cruciferous vegetables were inversely related to serum tHcy. This association may be explained by increased intakes of folate and riboflavin.