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Vitamin D fortification in the United States and Canada: current status and data needs.

Abstract

Most circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D originates from exposure to sunlight; nevertheless, many factors can impair this process, necessitating periodic reliance on dietary sources to maintain adequate serum concentrations. The US and Canadian populations are largely dependent on fortified foods and dietary supplements to meet these needs, because foods naturally rich in vitamin D are limited. Fluid milk and breakfast cereals are the predominant vehicles for vitamin D in the United States, whereas Canada fortifies fluid milk and margarine. Reports of a high prevalence of hypovitaminosis D and its association with increased risks of chronic diseases have raised concerns regarding the adequacy of current intake levels and the safest and most effective way to increase vitamin D intake in the general population and in vulnerable groups. The usual daily intakes of vitamin D from food alone and from food and supplements combined, as estimated from the US third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988-1994, show median values above the adequate intake of 5 microg/d for children 6-11 y of age; however, median intakes are generally below the adequate intake for female subjects > 12 y of age and men > 50 y. In Canada, there are no national survey data for estimation of intake. Cross-sectional studies suggest that current US/Canadian fortification practices are not effective in preventing hypovitaminosis D, particularly among vulnerable populations during the winter, whereas supplement use shows more promise. Recent prospective intervention studies with higher vitamin D concentrations provided evidence of safety and efficacy for fortification of specific foods and use of supplements.

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  • Publisher Full Text
  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    Office of Applied Research and Safety Assessment, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, Food and Drug Administration, Laurel, MD 20910, USA. mona.calvo@cfsan.fda.gov

    ,

    Source

    The American journal of clinical nutrition 80:6 Suppl 2004 12 pg 1710S-6S

    MeSH

    Adolescent
    Adult
    Age Factors
    Canada
    Child
    Diet
    Female
    Food Labeling
    Food, Fortified
    Humans
    Male
    Middle Aged
    Nutrition Surveys
    Nutritional Requirements
    Safety
    Sex Factors
    Sunlight
    Treatment Outcome
    United States
    Vitamin D
    Vitamin D Deficiency

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article
    Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
    Review

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    15585792

    Citation

    Calvo, Mona S., et al. "Vitamin D Fortification in the United States and Canada: Current Status and Data Needs." The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 80, no. 6 Suppl, 2004, 1710S-6S.
    Calvo MS, Whiting SJ, Barton CN. Vitamin D fortification in the United States and Canada: current status and data needs. Am J Clin Nutr. 2004;80(6 Suppl):1710S-6S.
    Calvo, M. S., Whiting, S. J., & Barton, C. N. (2004). Vitamin D fortification in the United States and Canada: current status and data needs. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 80(6 Suppl), 1710S-6S. doi:10.1093/ajcn/80.6.1710S.
    Calvo MS, Whiting SJ, Barton CN. Vitamin D Fortification in the United States and Canada: Current Status and Data Needs. Am J Clin Nutr. 2004;80(6 Suppl):1710S-6S. PubMed PMID: 15585792.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - Vitamin D fortification in the United States and Canada: current status and data needs. AU - Calvo,Mona S, AU - Whiting,Susan J, AU - Barton,Curtis N, PY - 2004/12/9/pubmed PY - 2004/12/31/medline PY - 2004/12/9/entrez SP - 1710S EP - 6S JF - The American journal of clinical nutrition JO - Am. J. Clin. Nutr. VL - 80 IS - 6 Suppl N2 - Most circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D originates from exposure to sunlight; nevertheless, many factors can impair this process, necessitating periodic reliance on dietary sources to maintain adequate serum concentrations. The US and Canadian populations are largely dependent on fortified foods and dietary supplements to meet these needs, because foods naturally rich in vitamin D are limited. Fluid milk and breakfast cereals are the predominant vehicles for vitamin D in the United States, whereas Canada fortifies fluid milk and margarine. Reports of a high prevalence of hypovitaminosis D and its association with increased risks of chronic diseases have raised concerns regarding the adequacy of current intake levels and the safest and most effective way to increase vitamin D intake in the general population and in vulnerable groups. The usual daily intakes of vitamin D from food alone and from food and supplements combined, as estimated from the US third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988-1994, show median values above the adequate intake of 5 microg/d for children 6-11 y of age; however, median intakes are generally below the adequate intake for female subjects > 12 y of age and men > 50 y. In Canada, there are no national survey data for estimation of intake. Cross-sectional studies suggest that current US/Canadian fortification practices are not effective in preventing hypovitaminosis D, particularly among vulnerable populations during the winter, whereas supplement use shows more promise. Recent prospective intervention studies with higher vitamin D concentrations provided evidence of safety and efficacy for fortification of specific foods and use of supplements. SN - 0002-9165 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/15585792/full_citation L2 - https://academic.oup.com/ajcn/article-lookup/doi/10.1093/ajcn/80.6.1710S DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -