Antibody response in patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis infected by Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis or Leishmania (Viannia) guyanensis in Brazil.Acta Trop. 2005 Jan; 93(1):49-56.AT
The antibody response against Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis crude antigen was measured through the indirect immunofluorescent assay (IFA) and the immunoenzymatic assay (ELISA) in 114 patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in Brazil. Fifty-four patients were infected by Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis, and 60 patients had L. (V.) guyanensis infection. Patients were comparable by age, sex, disease duration and the Montenegro skin test diameter. L. (V.) braziliensis-infected patients showed significant lower number of ulcerated lesions, greater ulcerated area and higher proportion of lymph node enlargement. Sensitivity of IFA was 79.6% (95% CI 66.1-88.9) and 71.7% (95% CI 58.4-82.2) for L. (V.) braziliensis and L. (V.) guyanensis-infected patients, respectively (P=0.324). Sensitivity of ELISA was 98.2% (95% CI 88.8-99.9) and 85.0% (95% CI 72.9-92.5) for L. (V.) braziliensis and L. (V.) guyanensis-infected patients, respectively (P=0.018). Significant differences were observed in the magnitude of the antibody response before treatment with higher levels detected in L. (V.) braziliensis-infected patients by both serologic techniques. Eighty-four patients had serologic evaluations before and 12 weeks after treatment with meglumine antimoniate, 20 mg/kg/day for 20 days. Significant lower optic density values were observed after treatment with both species independent of cure or failure. Our data showed that L. (V.) braziliensis induces a higher antibody response against L. (L.) amazonensis antigens than L. (V.) guyanensis and that down-modulation of the antibody response occurs shortly during disease evolution after treatment. Moreover the data support the use of ELISA as a better tool for detection of antibodies in CL.