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Immunohistochemical determination of the sympathetic pathway in the orbit via the cranial nerves in humans.
J Neurosurg. 2004 Dec; 101(6):1037-44.JN

Abstract

OBJECT

The present study was undertaken to elucidate the extent and precise distribution of the postganglionic sympathetic fibers in the cranial nerves projecting to the orbit and to reconstruct sympathetic routes in the orbit in humans. For this purpose, the authors made an immunohistochemical determination of the sympathetic fibers by using an antibody against norepinephrine-synthetic enzyme, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH).

METHODS

Specimens containing the orbit and the cavernous sinus were obtained from formalin-fixed human cadavers. First, it was confirmed that the superior cervical ganglion contained strongly immunostained TH-positive neuronal cell bodies and fibers. After careful dissection of the cranial nerves projecting to the orbit, different segments of each cranial nerve were processed for immunohistochemical analysis for TH. All of the intraorbital cranial nerves contained TH-positive sympathetic fibers, although the amounts were very different in each cranial nerve. At the proximal site of the common tendinous ring, TH-positive fibers were found mainly in the abducent and trochlear nerves. At the distal site of this ring, TH-positive fibers were lost or markedly reduced in number in the abducent and trochlear nerves and were distributed mostly in the ophthalmic and oculomotor nerves. Among the cranial nerves projecting to the orbit, the ophthalmic nerve and its bifurcated nerves--frontal, lacrimal, and nasociliary--contained numerous TH-positive fibers.

CONCLUSIONS

The authors conclude that the postganglionic sympathetic fibers are distributed to all cranial nerves projecting to the orbit and that the ophthalmic nerve provides a major sympathetic route in the orbital cavity in humans.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Neurosurgery, Shinshu University School of Medicine, Matsumoto, Nagano, Japan.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

15597766

Citation

Oikawa, Susumu, et al. "Immunohistochemical Determination of the Sympathetic Pathway in the Orbit Via the Cranial Nerves in Humans." Journal of Neurosurgery, vol. 101, no. 6, 2004, pp. 1037-44.
Oikawa S, Kawagishi K, Yokouchi K, et al. Immunohistochemical determination of the sympathetic pathway in the orbit via the cranial nerves in humans. J Neurosurg. 2004;101(6):1037-44.
Oikawa, S., Kawagishi, K., Yokouchi, K., Fukushima, N., & Moriizumi, T. (2004). Immunohistochemical determination of the sympathetic pathway in the orbit via the cranial nerves in humans. Journal of Neurosurgery, 101(6), 1037-44.
Oikawa S, et al. Immunohistochemical Determination of the Sympathetic Pathway in the Orbit Via the Cranial Nerves in Humans. J Neurosurg. 2004;101(6):1037-44. PubMed PMID: 15597766.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Immunohistochemical determination of the sympathetic pathway in the orbit via the cranial nerves in humans. AU - Oikawa,Susumu, AU - Kawagishi,Kyutaro, AU - Yokouchi,Kumiko, AU - Fukushima,Nanae, AU - Moriizumi,Tetsuji, PY - 2004/12/16/pubmed PY - 2005/1/4/medline PY - 2004/12/16/entrez SP - 1037 EP - 44 JF - Journal of neurosurgery JO - J. Neurosurg. VL - 101 IS - 6 N2 - OBJECT: The present study was undertaken to elucidate the extent and precise distribution of the postganglionic sympathetic fibers in the cranial nerves projecting to the orbit and to reconstruct sympathetic routes in the orbit in humans. For this purpose, the authors made an immunohistochemical determination of the sympathetic fibers by using an antibody against norepinephrine-synthetic enzyme, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH). METHODS: Specimens containing the orbit and the cavernous sinus were obtained from formalin-fixed human cadavers. First, it was confirmed that the superior cervical ganglion contained strongly immunostained TH-positive neuronal cell bodies and fibers. After careful dissection of the cranial nerves projecting to the orbit, different segments of each cranial nerve were processed for immunohistochemical analysis for TH. All of the intraorbital cranial nerves contained TH-positive sympathetic fibers, although the amounts were very different in each cranial nerve. At the proximal site of the common tendinous ring, TH-positive fibers were found mainly in the abducent and trochlear nerves. At the distal site of this ring, TH-positive fibers were lost or markedly reduced in number in the abducent and trochlear nerves and were distributed mostly in the ophthalmic and oculomotor nerves. Among the cranial nerves projecting to the orbit, the ophthalmic nerve and its bifurcated nerves--frontal, lacrimal, and nasociliary--contained numerous TH-positive fibers. CONCLUSIONS: The authors conclude that the postganglionic sympathetic fibers are distributed to all cranial nerves projecting to the orbit and that the ophthalmic nerve provides a major sympathetic route in the orbital cavity in humans. SN - 0022-3085 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/15597766/Immunohistochemical_determination_of_the_sympathetic_pathway_in_the_orbit_via_the_cranial_nerves_in_humans_ L2 - https://thejns.org/doi/10.3171/jns.2004.101.6.1037 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -