Pure shear horizontal SAW biosensor on langasite.IEEE Trans Ultrason Ferroelectr Freq Control. 2004 Nov; 51(11):1404-11.IT
The undetected introduction of pathogens into food or water supplies can produce grave consequences in terms of economic loss and human suffering. Sensitive and selective sensors capable of quickly detecting microbial pathogens are urgently needed to limit the effects of bioterrorist incidents, accidents, or pollution. Shear horizontal surface acoustic wave (SH SAW) devices provide an attractive platform for the design of microbial biosensors that function in liquid media, where Rayleigh-type modes are rapidly attenuated. This paper reports on an exploratory SH SAW delay line designed and fabricated on langasite, La3Ga5SiO14 (LGS), along the novel Euler propagation direction (0 degrees, 22 degrees, 90 degrees). A liquid chamber was fabricated and attached to the top surface, and the device was submitted to liquid and biochemical tests. Moderate (6 dB) additional attenuation of the transmission coefficient, /S21/, was consistently observed when the SH SAW delay line was assembled in the test fixture and submitted to the liquid tests, indicating that LGS is an attractive candidate for liquid sensing. Sensor selectivity can be achieved by integrating the LGS SH SAW delay line with a biochemical recognition layer. A test setup was implemented for the characterization of LGS SH SAW-based biosensors. The delay line response to biomolecule binding was shown by detection of sequential binding of proteins to the SH SAW device delay path. The biotinylated sensor was exposed sequentially to biotin-binding deglycosylated avidin, biotin-modified rabbit IgG, and goat anti-rabbit IgG antibody. As each protein was bound to the sensing surface, marked changes in the delay-line phase were recorded. The reported results demonstrate the capability of these devices to act as biochemical detectors in aqueous solutions, and this work represents the first effort using the novel material LGS in SAW-based biosensor technology.