The influence of dietary vitamin E, fat, and methionine on blood cholesterol profile, homocysteine levels, and oxidizability of low density lipoprotein in the gerbil.J Nutr Biochem. 2004 Dec; 15(12):730-40.JN
A 90-day feeding study with gerbils was conducted to evaluate the influence of dietary vitamin E levels (25 mg/kg diet, 75 mg/kg, 300 mg/kg, and 900 mg/kg), two levels of dietary methionione (casein or casein+L-methionine (1% w/w)) and two sources of lipid (soybean oil [20%] or soybean oil [4%]+coconut oil [16%, 1:4 w/w]) upon serum lipids (total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol). In addition, this study examined the effects of diet-induced hyperhomocysteinemia and supplemental dietary vitamin E on the oxidation of low density lipoproteins. Tissue vitamin E (heart, liver, and plasma) demonstrated a dose response (P< or =0.001) following the supplementation with increasing dietary vitamin E (25, 75, 300, and 900 mg/kg). In addition, tissue vitamin E levels were found to be higher (P< or =0.001) in those animals receiving a combination of coconut oil+soybean oil as compared to the group receiving soybean oil solely. Blood cholesterol profiles indicated an increase (P< or =0.001) in total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol by the influence of saturated fat and supplemental methionine. Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol profile demonstrated a reduction (P< or =0.001) at the higher dietary vitamin E levels (300 and 900 mg/kg) as compared to the 25 mg/kg and 75 mg/kg dietary vitamin E. Plasma protein carbonyls were not influenced by dietary vitamin E nor by supplemental methionine intake. In vitro oxidation of LDL showed that vitamin E delayed the lag time of the oxidation phase (P< or =0.001) and reduced total diene production (P< or =0.001). On the contrary, supplemental methionine decreased (P< or =0.001) the delay time of the lag phase, whereas total diene production was increased (P< or =0.001). Plasma lipid hydroperoxides were significantly reduced (P< or =0.05) with supplemental dietary vitamin E, whereas supplemental L-methionine (1%) resulted in a significant (P< or =0.05) increase in lipid plasma hydroperoxide formation. Plasma homocysteine was elevated (P< or =0.001) with supplemental dietary L-methionine (1%) as well as the inclusion of dietary saturated fat. The present data showed that 1) a combination of dietary lipids (saturated and unsaturated fatty acids) as well as vitamin E and methionine supplementation altered blood cholesterol lipoprotein profiles; 2) in vitro oxidation parameters including LDL (lag time and diene production) and plasma hydroperoxide formations were affected by vitamin E and methionine supplementation; and 3) plasma homocysteine concentrations were influenced by supplemental methionine and the inclusion of dietary saturated fat.