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Costs of illness due to typhoid fever in an Indian urban slum community: implications for vaccination policy.
J Health Popul Nutr. 2004 Sep; 22(3):304-10.JH

Abstract

Data on the burden of disease, costs of illness, and cost-effectiveness of vaccines are needed to facilitate the use of available anti-typhoid vaccines in developing countries. This one-year prospective surveillance was carried out in an urban slum community in Delhi, India, to estimate the costs of illness for cases of typhoid fever. Ninety-eight culture-positive typhoid, 31 culture-positive paratyphoid, and 94 culture-negative cases with clinical typhoid syndrome were identified during the surveillance. Estimates of costs of illness were based on data collected through weekly interviews conducted at home for three months following diagnosis. Private costs included the sum of direct medical, direct non-medical, and indirect costs. Non-patient (public) costs included costs of outpatient visits, hospitalizations, laboratory tests, and medicines provided free of charge to the families. The mean cost per episode of blood culture-confirmed typhoid fever was 3,597 Indian Rupees (US$ 1=INR 35.5) (SD 5,833); hospitalization increased the costs by several folds (INR 18,131, SD 11,218, p<0.0001). The private and non-patient costs of illness were similar (INR 1,732, SD 1,589, and INR 1,865, SD 5,154 respectively, p=0.8095). The total private and non-patient ex-ante costs, i.e. expected annual losses for each individual, were higher for children aged 2-5 years (INR 154) than for those aged 5-19 years (INR 32), 0-2 year(s) (INR 25), and 19-40 years (INR 2). The study highlights the need for affordable typhoid vaccines efficacious at 2-5 years of age. Currently-available Vi vaccine is affordable but is unlikely to be efficacious in the first two years of life. Ways must be found to make Vi-conjugate vaccine, which is efficacious at this age, available to children of developing-countries.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease and Nutrition Research, Department of Paediatrics, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi 110 029, India.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

15609783

Citation

Bahl, Rajiv, et al. "Costs of Illness Due to Typhoid Fever in an Indian Urban Slum Community: Implications for Vaccination Policy." Journal of Health, Population, and Nutrition, vol. 22, no. 3, 2004, pp. 304-10.
Bahl R, Sinha A, Poulos C, et al. Costs of illness due to typhoid fever in an Indian urban slum community: implications for vaccination policy. J Health Popul Nutr. 2004;22(3):304-10.
Bahl, R., Sinha, A., Poulos, C., Whittington, D., Sazawal, S., Kumar, R., Mahalanabis, D., Acosta, C. J., Clemens, J. D., & Bhan, M. K. (2004). Costs of illness due to typhoid fever in an Indian urban slum community: implications for vaccination policy. Journal of Health, Population, and Nutrition, 22(3), 304-10.
Bahl R, et al. Costs of Illness Due to Typhoid Fever in an Indian Urban Slum Community: Implications for Vaccination Policy. J Health Popul Nutr. 2004;22(3):304-10. PubMed PMID: 15609783.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Costs of illness due to typhoid fever in an Indian urban slum community: implications for vaccination policy. AU - Bahl,Rajiv, AU - Sinha,Anju, AU - Poulos,Christine, AU - Whittington,Dale, AU - Sazawal,Sunil, AU - Kumar,Ramesh, AU - Mahalanabis,Dilip, AU - Acosta,Camilo J, AU - Clemens,John D, AU - Bhan,Maharaj K, PY - 2004/12/22/pubmed PY - 2005/5/6/medline PY - 2004/12/22/entrez SP - 304 EP - 10 JF - Journal of health, population, and nutrition JO - J Health Popul Nutr VL - 22 IS - 3 N2 - Data on the burden of disease, costs of illness, and cost-effectiveness of vaccines are needed to facilitate the use of available anti-typhoid vaccines in developing countries. This one-year prospective surveillance was carried out in an urban slum community in Delhi, India, to estimate the costs of illness for cases of typhoid fever. Ninety-eight culture-positive typhoid, 31 culture-positive paratyphoid, and 94 culture-negative cases with clinical typhoid syndrome were identified during the surveillance. Estimates of costs of illness were based on data collected through weekly interviews conducted at home for three months following diagnosis. Private costs included the sum of direct medical, direct non-medical, and indirect costs. Non-patient (public) costs included costs of outpatient visits, hospitalizations, laboratory tests, and medicines provided free of charge to the families. The mean cost per episode of blood culture-confirmed typhoid fever was 3,597 Indian Rupees (US$ 1=INR 35.5) (SD 5,833); hospitalization increased the costs by several folds (INR 18,131, SD 11,218, p<0.0001). The private and non-patient costs of illness were similar (INR 1,732, SD 1,589, and INR 1,865, SD 5,154 respectively, p=0.8095). The total private and non-patient ex-ante costs, i.e. expected annual losses for each individual, were higher for children aged 2-5 years (INR 154) than for those aged 5-19 years (INR 32), 0-2 year(s) (INR 25), and 19-40 years (INR 2). The study highlights the need for affordable typhoid vaccines efficacious at 2-5 years of age. Currently-available Vi vaccine is affordable but is unlikely to be efficacious in the first two years of life. Ways must be found to make Vi-conjugate vaccine, which is efficacious at this age, available to children of developing-countries. SN - 1606-0997 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/15609783/Costs_of_illness_due_to_typhoid_fever_in_an_Indian_urban_slum_community:_implications_for_vaccination_policy_ L2 - https://www.diseaseinfosearch.org/result/7276 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -