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The effect of habitual physical activity, non-athletic exercise, muscle strength, and VO2max on bone mineral density is rather low in early postmenopausal osteopenic women.

Abstract

CONTEXT

Although the positive effect of well-designed exercise regimes on bone mineral density (BMD) is established the osteo-anabolic relevance of habitual physical activity and non-athletic exercise is still under discussion.

OBJECTIVE

To determine the effects of habitual physical activity, non-athletic exercise muscle strength, VO2max and anthropometric parameters on BMD in early post-menopausal women.

DESIGN

Cross-sectional study.

METHODS

150 early postmenopausal women (55.5+/-3.4 years), which were free of diseases or medication affecting bone metabolism and had no athletic history were investigated. The influence of weight, body composition, physical activity, isometric strength, VO2max, and nutritional intake on BMD was measured at multiple sites using different techniques. Further bone markers (Osteocalcin, CTX) were determined. Activity and weight-bearing activity were assessed by questionnaire. Maximum strength was measured isometrically. Aerobic capacity was measured with an spirometric system in a stepwise treadmill test and dietary intake was monitored over 5 days.

RESULTS

Slight relationships between physical activity, exercise, muscle strength and VO2max with bone parameters were determined by univariate analysis. After adjusting for confounding variables in a stepwise regression analysis, significant relationships with BMD measured at the hip or the spine could no longer be detected for physical activity, exercise, and physical fitness (strength indices, VO2max). The same was true for osteocalcin and CTX. Arm strength explained 4.5% of the variation of forearm BMD (DXA). At the calcaneal site, osteogenic exercise was significantly related to the quantitative ultrasound index (r2 = 0.27).

CONCLUSION

The isolated effect of habitual physical activity, unspecific exercise participation, and muscle strength on bone parameters is rather low in (early-) postmenopausal women.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Women at risk should take specific exercise programs into consideration rather than to increasing the amount of habitual physical activity.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Institute of Medical Physics, University of Erlangen, Germany. wolfgang.kemmler@imp.uni-erlangen.deNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

15615501

Citation

Kemmler, W, et al. "The Effect of Habitual Physical Activity, Non-athletic Exercise, Muscle Strength, and VO2max On Bone Mineral Density Is Rather Low in Early Postmenopausal Osteopenic Women." Journal of Musculoskeletal & Neuronal Interactions, vol. 4, no. 3, 2004, pp. 325-34.
Kemmler W, Weineck J, Kalender WA, et al. The effect of habitual physical activity, non-athletic exercise, muscle strength, and VO2max on bone mineral density is rather low in early postmenopausal osteopenic women. J Musculoskelet Neuronal Interact. 2004;4(3):325-34.
Kemmler, W., Weineck, J., Kalender, W. A., & Engelke, K. (2004). The effect of habitual physical activity, non-athletic exercise, muscle strength, and VO2max on bone mineral density is rather low in early postmenopausal osteopenic women. Journal of Musculoskeletal & Neuronal Interactions, 4(3), pp. 325-34.
Kemmler W, et al. The Effect of Habitual Physical Activity, Non-athletic Exercise, Muscle Strength, and VO2max On Bone Mineral Density Is Rather Low in Early Postmenopausal Osteopenic Women. J Musculoskelet Neuronal Interact. 2004;4(3):325-34. PubMed PMID: 15615501.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - The effect of habitual physical activity, non-athletic exercise, muscle strength, and VO2max on bone mineral density is rather low in early postmenopausal osteopenic women. AU - Kemmler,W, AU - Weineck,J, AU - Kalender,W A, AU - Engelke,K, PY - 2004/12/24/pubmed PY - 2005/1/26/medline PY - 2004/12/24/entrez SP - 325 EP - 34 JF - Journal of musculoskeletal & neuronal interactions JO - J Musculoskelet Neuronal Interact VL - 4 IS - 3 N2 - CONTEXT: Although the positive effect of well-designed exercise regimes on bone mineral density (BMD) is established the osteo-anabolic relevance of habitual physical activity and non-athletic exercise is still under discussion. OBJECTIVE: To determine the effects of habitual physical activity, non-athletic exercise muscle strength, VO2max and anthropometric parameters on BMD in early post-menopausal women. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. METHODS: 150 early postmenopausal women (55.5+/-3.4 years), which were free of diseases or medication affecting bone metabolism and had no athletic history were investigated. The influence of weight, body composition, physical activity, isometric strength, VO2max, and nutritional intake on BMD was measured at multiple sites using different techniques. Further bone markers (Osteocalcin, CTX) were determined. Activity and weight-bearing activity were assessed by questionnaire. Maximum strength was measured isometrically. Aerobic capacity was measured with an spirometric system in a stepwise treadmill test and dietary intake was monitored over 5 days. RESULTS: Slight relationships between physical activity, exercise, muscle strength and VO2max with bone parameters were determined by univariate analysis. After adjusting for confounding variables in a stepwise regression analysis, significant relationships with BMD measured at the hip or the spine could no longer be detected for physical activity, exercise, and physical fitness (strength indices, VO2max). The same was true for osteocalcin and CTX. Arm strength explained 4.5% of the variation of forearm BMD (DXA). At the calcaneal site, osteogenic exercise was significantly related to the quantitative ultrasound index (r2 = 0.27). CONCLUSION: The isolated effect of habitual physical activity, unspecific exercise participation, and muscle strength on bone parameters is rather low in (early-) postmenopausal women. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Women at risk should take specific exercise programs into consideration rather than to increasing the amount of habitual physical activity. SN - 1108-7161 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/15615501/The_effect_of_habitual_physical_activity_non_athletic_exercise_muscle_strength_and_VO2max_on_bone_mineral_density_is_rather_low_in_early_postmenopausal_osteopenic_women_ L2 - http://www.ismni.org/jmni/pdf/17/13KEMMLER.pdf DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -