Physical activity in the prevention of type 2 diabetes: the Finnish diabetes prevention study.Diabetes 2005; 54(1):158-65D
Clinical trials have demonstrated that lifestyle changes can prevent type 2 diabetes, but the importance of leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) is still unclear. We carried out post hoc analyses on the role of LTPA in preventing type 2 diabetes in 487 men and women with impaired glucose tolerance who had completed 12-month LTPA questionnaires. The subjects were participants in the Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study, a randomized controlled trial of lifestyle changes including diet, weight loss, and LTPA. There were 107 new cases of diabetes during the 4.1-year follow-up period. Individuals who increased moderate-to-vigorous LTPA or strenuous, structured LTPA the most were 63-65% less likely to develop diabetes. Adjustment for changes in diet and body weight during the study attenuated the association somewhat (upper versus lower third: moderate-to-vigorous LTPA, relative risk 0.51, 95% CI 0.26-0.97; strenuous, structured LTPA, 0.63, 0.35-1.13). Low-intensity and lifestyle LTPA and walking also conferred benefits, consistent with the finding that the change in total LTPA (upper versus lower third: 0.34, 0.19-0.62) was the most strongly associated with incident diabetes. Thus increasing physical activity may substantially reduce the incidence of type 2 diabetes in high-risk individuals.