Emotions in everyday life: an ambulatory monitoring study with female students.Biol Psychol. 2005 Mar; 68(3):237-55.BP
Additional heart rate as an indicator of emotional arousal was monitored throughout the day with a special ambulatory device. Fifty female students received acoustic feedback every 10-20 min. The feedback was based either on events (additional heart rate present) or was random without additional heart rate. Following the feedback the subjects were asked to disclose their emotions. The following emotions were listed on the display of the monitoring device: no emotion, happiness, anger, anxiety/fear, sadness, surprise, and disgust. The frequency and quality of the emotions were not different between event-related and random feedbacks, indicating that the subjects were not able to discriminate between events with and without additional heart rate correctly. Accordingly, the physiological profiles of the differing emotions compared to conditions with "no emotion" were equivocal. The psychological ratings of excitement and enjoyment, however, came up to expectations. The results show that cognitive schemata and personality dimensions are more important in emotion perception than physiological activation.