Determination of fluoroquinolone antibiotics in wastewater effluents by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and fluorescence detection.Chemosphere. 2005 Feb; 58(6):759-66.C
The occurrence of quinolone antibiotics (QAs) was investigated in wastewater effluents and surface river/lake waters in the US and Canada by using solid-phase extraction with mixed phase cation exchange disk cartridge and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and liquid chromatography fluorescence detection (LC-FLD). Ofloxacin (OFL) was detected in secondary and final effluents of a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in East Lansing, Michigan, at concentrations of 204 and 100 ng/l, respectively. The mass flow calculation, estimated by multiplying the OFL concentration in the final effluent by the average influent volume of the WWTP, showed that the discharge of OFL to the river was 4.8 g/day. The OFL concentrations in wastewater effluents measured in this study are comparable to or less than those observed in several European countries. QAs were not detected in river and lake waters analyzed in this study, which may due to dilution effects and to the higher detection limits, relative to those reported previously. OFL concentrations were approximately 1-2 orders of magnitude lower than the EC50 concentrations for environmental bacterium. However, greater concentrations of other QAs in sewage sludge from WWTPs may result in cumulative effects. Considering that the sewage sludge is applied to the land as fertilizers, soil-dwelling organisms could experience greater exposures to such antibiotics. Monitoring studies of QAs in sewage from WWTPs and in sediment/soil near aquaculture facilities and livestock farms will be necessary for the evaluation of the environmental distribution and risk of these compounds.