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Smoking and its association with cataract: results of the Andhra Pradesh eye disease study from India.
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2005; 46(1):58-65IO

Abstract

PURPOSE

To investigate the associations between tobacco smoking and various forms of cataracts among the people of a state in India.

METHODS

A population-based cross-sectional epidemiologic study was conducted in the south Indian state of Andhra Pradesh (AP). A total of 10,293 subjects of all ages from one urban and three rural areas, representative of the population of AP, were interviewed, and each underwent a detailed dilated ocular evaluation by trained professionals. Data were analyzed for 7416 (72%) of the subjects aged >15 years.

RESULTS

Increasing age was significantly associated with all cataract types and history of prior cataract surgery and/or total cataract. In multivariate analyses, after adjusting for all demographic factors and for history of smoking, females, illiterate persons, and those belonging to the extreme lower socioeconomic status group were found to have a significantly higher prevalence of any cataract, adjusted odds ratio (OR)=1.60 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.24-1.96), 1.46 (95% CI: 1.17-1.70), and 1.92 (95% CI: 1.14-3.24), respectively. After adjustment, cigarette and cigar smokers had a significantly higher prevalence of any cataract, adjusted OR=1.51 (95% CI: 1.10-2.06) and 1.44 (95% CI: 1.12-1.84), respectively, compared with those who had never smoked ("never-smokers"). A significantly higher prevalence of nuclear, cortical cataract, and history of prior cataract surgery and/ or total cataract was found among cigarette smokers. A dose-response relationship was seen with respect to cigarette and cigar smoking. After adjustment, compared with never-smokers, cigarette smokers who smoked heavily (>14 "pack-years" of smoking) had a significantly higher prevalence of nuclear cataract (OR=1.65; 95% CI: 1.10-2.59), cortical cataract (OR=2.11; 95% CI: 1.38-3.24), and history of prior cataract surgery and/or total cataract (OR=2.10; 95% CI: 1.05-4.22). Nuclear cataract was significantly higher in cigar smokers (adjusted OR=1.55; 95% CI: 1.16-2.01) and in cigar smokers who smoked heavily (>21 person-years of smoking; OR=1.50; 95% CI: 1.10-1.95), compared with never-smokers.

CONCLUSIONS

Consistent with other studies, tobacco smoking was strongly associated with a higher prevalence of nuclear and cortical cataracts and history of prior cataract surgery in this population. These findings suggest yet another need to educate the community on the importance of cessation of tobacco smoking and perhaps incorporating an antismoking message into school health programs.

Authors+Show Affiliations

L. V. Prasad Eye Institute, Hyderabad, India. krishnaiah@lvpei.orgNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

15623755

Citation

Krishnaiah, Sannapaneni, et al. "Smoking and Its Association With Cataract: Results of the Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study From India." Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, vol. 46, no. 1, 2005, pp. 58-65.
Krishnaiah S, Vilas K, Shamanna BR, et al. Smoking and its association with cataract: results of the Andhra Pradesh eye disease study from India. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2005;46(1):58-65.
Krishnaiah, S., Vilas, K., Shamanna, B. R., Rao, G. N., Thomas, R., & Balasubramanian, D. (2005). Smoking and its association with cataract: results of the Andhra Pradesh eye disease study from India. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, 46(1), pp. 58-65.
Krishnaiah S, et al. Smoking and Its Association With Cataract: Results of the Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study From India. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2005;46(1):58-65. PubMed PMID: 15623755.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Smoking and its association with cataract: results of the Andhra Pradesh eye disease study from India. AU - Krishnaiah,Sannapaneni, AU - Vilas,Kovai, AU - Shamanna,Bindiganavale R, AU - Rao,Gullapalli N, AU - Thomas,Ravi, AU - Balasubramanian,Dorairajan, PY - 2004/12/30/pubmed PY - 2005/2/11/medline PY - 2004/12/30/entrez SP - 58 EP - 65 JF - Investigative ophthalmology & visual science JO - Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. VL - 46 IS - 1 N2 - PURPOSE: To investigate the associations between tobacco smoking and various forms of cataracts among the people of a state in India. METHODS: A population-based cross-sectional epidemiologic study was conducted in the south Indian state of Andhra Pradesh (AP). A total of 10,293 subjects of all ages from one urban and three rural areas, representative of the population of AP, were interviewed, and each underwent a detailed dilated ocular evaluation by trained professionals. Data were analyzed for 7416 (72%) of the subjects aged >15 years. RESULTS: Increasing age was significantly associated with all cataract types and history of prior cataract surgery and/or total cataract. In multivariate analyses, after adjusting for all demographic factors and for history of smoking, females, illiterate persons, and those belonging to the extreme lower socioeconomic status group were found to have a significantly higher prevalence of any cataract, adjusted odds ratio (OR)=1.60 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.24-1.96), 1.46 (95% CI: 1.17-1.70), and 1.92 (95% CI: 1.14-3.24), respectively. After adjustment, cigarette and cigar smokers had a significantly higher prevalence of any cataract, adjusted OR=1.51 (95% CI: 1.10-2.06) and 1.44 (95% CI: 1.12-1.84), respectively, compared with those who had never smoked ("never-smokers"). A significantly higher prevalence of nuclear, cortical cataract, and history of prior cataract surgery and/ or total cataract was found among cigarette smokers. A dose-response relationship was seen with respect to cigarette and cigar smoking. After adjustment, compared with never-smokers, cigarette smokers who smoked heavily (>14 "pack-years" of smoking) had a significantly higher prevalence of nuclear cataract (OR=1.65; 95% CI: 1.10-2.59), cortical cataract (OR=2.11; 95% CI: 1.38-3.24), and history of prior cataract surgery and/or total cataract (OR=2.10; 95% CI: 1.05-4.22). Nuclear cataract was significantly higher in cigar smokers (adjusted OR=1.55; 95% CI: 1.16-2.01) and in cigar smokers who smoked heavily (>21 person-years of smoking; OR=1.50; 95% CI: 1.10-1.95), compared with never-smokers. CONCLUSIONS: Consistent with other studies, tobacco smoking was strongly associated with a higher prevalence of nuclear and cortical cataracts and history of prior cataract surgery in this population. These findings suggest yet another need to educate the community on the importance of cessation of tobacco smoking and perhaps incorporating an antismoking message into school health programs. SN - 0146-0404 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/15623755/Smoking_and_its_association_with_cataract:_results_of_the_Andhra_Pradesh_eye_disease_study_from_India_ L2 - http://iovs.arvojournals.org/article.aspx?doi=10.1167/iovs.04-0089 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -