The differential association of intimate partner physical, sexual, psychological, and stalking violence and posttraumatic stress symptoms in a nationally representative sample of women.J Trauma Stress. 2004 Oct; 17(5):413-21.JT
This study examines whether experiences with four different types of intimate partner violence (IPV) increase risk for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. We examined impacts of physical, sexual, psychological, and stalking victimization by a current partner on PTSD symptoms, the extent to which each type of IPV accounted for significant variance in PTSD symptoms when controlling for other forms, and the increase in PTSD symptoms from multiple forms of IPV. Findings reveal that all types of violence were associated with increased PTSD symptoms. When controlling for other types of violence, physical, psychological, and stalking violence were still associated with PTSD symptoms. There was evidence of a dose response in which the more types of violence experienced, the more PTSD symptoms.