Simultaneous determination of pyrethroid and pyrethrin metabolites in human urine by gas chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry.J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2005 Jan 25; 814(2):285-94.JC
A new developed gas chromatographic-high resolution mass spectrometric method for the sensitive simultaneous determination of trans-chrysanthemumdicarboxylic acid, cis- and trans-3-(2,2-dichlorovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropane carboxylic acid, cis-3-(2,2-dibromovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropane carboxylic acid, 3-phenoxybenzoic acid and 4-fluoro-3-phenoxybenzoic acid in human urine is presented. These metabolites are biomarkers for an exposure to pyrethrum, allethrin, resmethrin, phenothrin, tetramethrin, cyfluthrin, cypermethrin, deltamethrin or permethrin. Therefore, with the help of this method for the first time a complete assessment of exposure to pyrethroid and pyrethrin insecticides is possible. After acid hydrolysis and extraction with tert-butyl-methyl-ether the residue is derivatized with 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoroisopropanol and analyzed by GC/HRMS in electron impact mode (detection limits < 0.1 microg/l) as well as in negative chemical ionization mode (detection limit < 0.05 microg/l urine).