Photoreversal kinetics of the I1 and I2 intermediates in the photocycle of photoactive yellow protein by double flash experiments with variable time delay.Biochemistry. 2005 Jan 18; 44(2):656-65.B
We investigated the kinetics of photoreversal from the I(1) and I(2) intermediates of photoactive yellow protein (PYP) by time-resolved optical absorption spectroscopy with double flash excitation. A first flash, at 430 nm, initiated the photocycle. After a variable time delay, the I(1) intermediate was photoreversed by a second flash, at 500 nm, or a mixture of I(2) and I(2)' intermediates was photoreversed by a second flash, at 355 nm. By varying the delay from 1 micros to 3 s, we were able to selectively excite the intermediates I(1), I(2), and I(2)'. The photoreversal kinetics of I(2) and I(2)' at 21 different delays and two wavelengths (340 and 450 nm) required two exponentials for a global fit with time constants of tau(1) = 57 +/- 5 micros and tau(2) = 380 +/- 40 micros (pH 6, 20 degrees C). These were assigned to photoreversal from sequential I(2) and I(2)' intermediates, respectively. The good agreement of the delay dependence of the two amplitudes, A(1) and A(2), with the time dependence of the I(2) and I(2)' populations provided strong evidence for the sequential model. The persistence of A(1) beyond delay times of 5 ms and its decay, together with A(2) around 500 ms, suggest moreover that I(2) and I(2)' are in thermal equilibrium. The wavelength dependence of the photoreversal kinetics was measured at 26 wavelengths from 510 to 330 nm at the two fixed delays of 1 and 10 ms. These data also required two exponentials for a global fit with tau(1) = 59 +/- 5 micros and tau(2) = 400 +/- 40 micros, in good agreement with the delay results. Photoreversal from I(2)' is slower than from I(2), since, in addition to chromophore protonation, the global conformational change has to be reversed. Our data thus provide a first estimate of about 59 micros for deprotonation and 400 micros for the structural change, which also occurs in the thermal decay of the signaling state but is obscured there since reisomerization is rate-limiting. The first step in photoreversal is rapid cis-trans isomerization of the chromophore, which we could not resolve, but which was detected by the instantaneous increase in absorbance between 330 and 380 nm. In agreement with this observation, the spectrum of the I(2)'(trans) intermediate, derived from the A(2) amplitude spectrum, has a much larger extinction coefficient than the spectrum of the I(2)'(cis) intermediate. With a first flash, at 430 nm, and a second flash, at 500 nm, we observed efficient photoreversal of the I(1) intermediate at a delay of 20 micros when most molecules in the cycle are in I(1). We conclude that each of the three intermediates studied can be reversed by a laser flash. Depending on the progression of the photocycle, reversal becomes slower with the time delay, thus mirroring the individual steps of the forward photocycle.