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Assessment of risk factors for oral leukoplakia in West Virginia.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To assess risk factors associated with oral leukoplakia in a US population with high use of smoked tobacco and smokeless tobacco.

METHODS

The RJ Gorlin Leukoplakia Tissue Registry was used to identify individuals with oral leukoplakia in West Virginia, USA. This case-control study consisted of 90 cases with oral leukoplakia and 78 controls with periapical cysts. Univariate-univariable (one dependent variable and one independent variable) and univariate-multivariable (one dependent variable and multiple independent variables) logistic regression modeling quantified the association between oral leukoplakia and potential explanatory variables.

RESULTS

Unadjusted measures of association indicate that those with oral leukoplakia were more likely to be older [odds ratio of crude: OR(Crude) = 2.72; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.45-5.11], more likely to currently use smokeless tobacco (OR(Crude) = 3.16; 95% CI: 1.10-9.07), and more likely to currently use snuff (OR(Crude) = 8.32; 95% CI: 1.83-37.80). Individuals currently using smokeless tobacco or currently using snuff were more likely to have oral leukoplakia [adjusted odds ratio, OR(Adj) = 9.21 and 30.08; 95% CI: 1.49-57.00 and 2.67-338.48, respectively], after simultaneously adjusting for age, gender, currently using smoked tobacco, currently using alcohol daily, and dental prostheses use.

CONCLUSIONS

Generalizability is an issue when studying risk factors associated with oral leukoplakia because of geographical variations in the composition of smokeless tobacco (i.e. betel, lime, ash, and N-nitrosamines) and cultural variations in the use of tobacco (i.e. reverse smoking). Snuff was the main smokeless tobacco product currently used in West Virginia, and was strongly associated with oral leukoplakia, after adjusting for potential explanatory variables.

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  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    University of Alabama at Birmingham, Department of Diagnostic Sciences, SDB 219, 1530 3rd Avenue South, Birmingham, AL 35294-0007, USA. mafisher@uab.edu

    ,

    Source

    MeSH

    Adult
    Age Factors
    Alcohol Drinking
    Analysis of Variance
    Case-Control Studies
    Dental Prosthesis
    Female
    Humans
    Leukoplakia, Oral
    Logistic Models
    Male
    Middle Aged
    Odds Ratio
    Risk Factors
    Smoking
    Surveys and Questionnaires
    Tobacco, Smokeless
    West Virginia

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article
    Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    15642046

    Citation

    Fisher, Monica A., et al. "Assessment of Risk Factors for Oral Leukoplakia in West Virginia." Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology, vol. 33, no. 1, 2005, pp. 45-52.
    Fisher MA, Bouquot JE, Shelton BJ. Assessment of risk factors for oral leukoplakia in West Virginia. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol. 2005;33(1):45-52.
    Fisher, M. A., Bouquot, J. E., & Shelton, B. J. (2005). Assessment of risk factors for oral leukoplakia in West Virginia. Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology, 33(1), pp. 45-52.
    Fisher MA, Bouquot JE, Shelton BJ. Assessment of Risk Factors for Oral Leukoplakia in West Virginia. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol. 2005;33(1):45-52. PubMed PMID: 15642046.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - Assessment of risk factors for oral leukoplakia in West Virginia. AU - Fisher,Monica A, AU - Bouquot,Jerry E, AU - Shelton,Brent J, PY - 2005/1/12/pubmed PY - 2005/3/2/medline PY - 2005/1/12/entrez SP - 45 EP - 52 JF - Community dentistry and oral epidemiology JO - Community Dent Oral Epidemiol VL - 33 IS - 1 N2 - OBJECTIVE: To assess risk factors associated with oral leukoplakia in a US population with high use of smoked tobacco and smokeless tobacco. METHODS: The RJ Gorlin Leukoplakia Tissue Registry was used to identify individuals with oral leukoplakia in West Virginia, USA. This case-control study consisted of 90 cases with oral leukoplakia and 78 controls with periapical cysts. Univariate-univariable (one dependent variable and one independent variable) and univariate-multivariable (one dependent variable and multiple independent variables) logistic regression modeling quantified the association between oral leukoplakia and potential explanatory variables. RESULTS: Unadjusted measures of association indicate that those with oral leukoplakia were more likely to be older [odds ratio of crude: OR(Crude) = 2.72; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.45-5.11], more likely to currently use smokeless tobacco (OR(Crude) = 3.16; 95% CI: 1.10-9.07), and more likely to currently use snuff (OR(Crude) = 8.32; 95% CI: 1.83-37.80). Individuals currently using smokeless tobacco or currently using snuff were more likely to have oral leukoplakia [adjusted odds ratio, OR(Adj) = 9.21 and 30.08; 95% CI: 1.49-57.00 and 2.67-338.48, respectively], after simultaneously adjusting for age, gender, currently using smoked tobacco, currently using alcohol daily, and dental prostheses use. CONCLUSIONS: Generalizability is an issue when studying risk factors associated with oral leukoplakia because of geographical variations in the composition of smokeless tobacco (i.e. betel, lime, ash, and N-nitrosamines) and cultural variations in the use of tobacco (i.e. reverse smoking). Snuff was the main smokeless tobacco product currently used in West Virginia, and was strongly associated with oral leukoplakia, after adjusting for potential explanatory variables. SN - 0301-5661 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/15642046/Assessment_of_risk_factors_for_oral_leukoplakia_in_West_Virginia_ L2 - https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0528.2004.00195.x DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -