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A pilot study to examine the effects of a mindfulness-based stress-reduction and relaxation program on levels of stress hormones, physical functioning, and submaximal exercise responses.
J Altern Complement Med 2004; 10(5):819-27JA

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

Stress has been cited as a causal factor in heart disease. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of an 8-week mindfulness-based stress-reduction program on the resting levels of stress hormones, physical functioning, and submaximal exercise responses in women with heart disease.

SUBJECTS

Random selection with the numbers 1 and 2 were used to assign 18 women (60 +/-6.3 years old) with documented histories of heart disease to a treatment group (n = 9) or a control group (n = 9). Speilberger's state anxiety scores for the treatment (M = 37.88; standard deviation (SD) = 10.91) and control group (M = 43.22; SD = 12.26) were not significantly different prior to the start of the study. However, their scores fell in the upper percentile rank for normal adults in their age category.

INTERVENTION

The intervention was provided one night each week for 2 hours over a period of 8 weeks. The intervention included didactic, inductive, and experiential modes of learning regarding stress responses and mindfulness skill-development training.

DESIGN

Pre-post test hormonal measurements and physical function were analyzed using a 2 (group) by 2 (time) analysis of variance (ANOVA) with repeated measures following the 8-week program. Submaximal exercise responses were also compared between the treatment group and the control group following the 8-week program. A 2 (group) by 3 (time) ANOVA with repeated measures was used to analyze the data.

SETTINGS/LOCATION

Weekly meetings were held on a university medical school campus. Submaximal exercise responses were recorded while participants cycled on a stationary bike in an applied physiology laboratory following the 8-week program.

RESULTS

There were no significant main effects or interaction for the resting levels of stress hormones or physical functioning. There were no significant interactions for the submaximal exercise responses, however, there were significant main effects between groups for ventilation [F(2,32) = 7.65, p < .01, f = 0.8], and between group [F(1,16) = 8.84, p < .01, f = 0.8] and time [F(2,32) = 10.42, p < .01, f = 0.9], for breathing frequency.

CONCLUSION

While the 8-week stress reduction program for women with heart disease did not show significant interactions between groups for resting levels of stress hormones, physical functioning, or submaximal exercise responses, there was a significant difference in breathing patterns between the 2 groups during exercise following the mindfulness-based stress-reduction program. There was also a trend for change in the intervention group in the resting levels of cortisol and physical function scores that was not seen in the control group. Future studies could use the effect size generated from this pilot study to calculate the number of subjects needed for adequate power to detect significant differences between groups.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Health, Exercise, and Sport Sciences, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409-301, USA. jacalyn.mccomb@ttu.edu

Pub Type(s)

Clinical Trial
Journal Article
Randomized Controlled Trial

Language

eng

PubMed ID

15650471

Citation

Robert McComb, Jacalyn J., et al. "A Pilot Study to Examine the Effects of a Mindfulness-based Stress-reduction and Relaxation Program On Levels of Stress Hormones, Physical Functioning, and Submaximal Exercise Responses." Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine (New York, N.Y.), vol. 10, no. 5, 2004, pp. 819-27.
Robert McComb JJ, Tacon A, Randolph P, et al. A pilot study to examine the effects of a mindfulness-based stress-reduction and relaxation program on levels of stress hormones, physical functioning, and submaximal exercise responses. J Altern Complement Med. 2004;10(5):819-27.
Robert McComb, J. J., Tacon, A., Randolph, P., & Caldera, Y. (2004). A pilot study to examine the effects of a mindfulness-based stress-reduction and relaxation program on levels of stress hormones, physical functioning, and submaximal exercise responses. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine (New York, N.Y.), 10(5), pp. 819-27.
Robert McComb JJ, et al. A Pilot Study to Examine the Effects of a Mindfulness-based Stress-reduction and Relaxation Program On Levels of Stress Hormones, Physical Functioning, and Submaximal Exercise Responses. J Altern Complement Med. 2004;10(5):819-27. PubMed PMID: 15650471.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - A pilot study to examine the effects of a mindfulness-based stress-reduction and relaxation program on levels of stress hormones, physical functioning, and submaximal exercise responses. AU - Robert McComb,Jacalyn J, AU - Tacon,Anna, AU - Randolph,Patrck, AU - Caldera,Yvonne, PY - 2005/1/15/pubmed PY - 2005/2/24/medline PY - 2005/1/15/entrez SP - 819 EP - 27 JF - Journal of alternative and complementary medicine (New York, N.Y.) JO - J Altern Complement Med VL - 10 IS - 5 N2 - OBJECTIVE: Stress has been cited as a causal factor in heart disease. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of an 8-week mindfulness-based stress-reduction program on the resting levels of stress hormones, physical functioning, and submaximal exercise responses in women with heart disease. SUBJECTS: Random selection with the numbers 1 and 2 were used to assign 18 women (60 +/-6.3 years old) with documented histories of heart disease to a treatment group (n = 9) or a control group (n = 9). Speilberger's state anxiety scores for the treatment (M = 37.88; standard deviation (SD) = 10.91) and control group (M = 43.22; SD = 12.26) were not significantly different prior to the start of the study. However, their scores fell in the upper percentile rank for normal adults in their age category. INTERVENTION: The intervention was provided one night each week for 2 hours over a period of 8 weeks. The intervention included didactic, inductive, and experiential modes of learning regarding stress responses and mindfulness skill-development training. DESIGN: Pre-post test hormonal measurements and physical function were analyzed using a 2 (group) by 2 (time) analysis of variance (ANOVA) with repeated measures following the 8-week program. Submaximal exercise responses were also compared between the treatment group and the control group following the 8-week program. A 2 (group) by 3 (time) ANOVA with repeated measures was used to analyze the data. SETTINGS/LOCATION: Weekly meetings were held on a university medical school campus. Submaximal exercise responses were recorded while participants cycled on a stationary bike in an applied physiology laboratory following the 8-week program. RESULTS: There were no significant main effects or interaction for the resting levels of stress hormones or physical functioning. There were no significant interactions for the submaximal exercise responses, however, there were significant main effects between groups for ventilation [F(2,32) = 7.65, p < .01, f = 0.8], and between group [F(1,16) = 8.84, p < .01, f = 0.8] and time [F(2,32) = 10.42, p < .01, f = 0.9], for breathing frequency. CONCLUSION: While the 8-week stress reduction program for women with heart disease did not show significant interactions between groups for resting levels of stress hormones, physical functioning, or submaximal exercise responses, there was a significant difference in breathing patterns between the 2 groups during exercise following the mindfulness-based stress-reduction program. There was also a trend for change in the intervention group in the resting levels of cortisol and physical function scores that was not seen in the control group. Future studies could use the effect size generated from this pilot study to calculate the number of subjects needed for adequate power to detect significant differences between groups. SN - 1075-5535 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/15650471/A_pilot_study_to_examine_the_effects_of_a_mindfulness_based_stress_reduction_and_relaxation_program_on_levels_of_stress_hormones_physical_functioning_and_submaximal_exercise_responses_ L2 - https://www.liebertpub.com/doi/full/10.1089/acm.2004.10.819?url_ver=Z39.88-2003&amp;rfr_id=ori:rid:crossref.org&amp;rfr_dat=cr_pub=pubmed DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -