Regulation of mitochondrial NADP+-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase activity by glutathionylation.J Biol Chem. 2005 Mar 18; 280(11):10846-54.JB
Recently, we demonstrated that the control of mitochondrial redox balance and oxidative damage is one of the primary functions of mitochondrial NADP(+)-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDPm). Because cysteine residue(s) in IDPm are susceptible to inactivation by a number of thiol-modifying reagents, we hypothesized that IDPm is likely a target for regulation by an oxidative mechanism, specifically glutathionylation. Oxidized glutathione led to enzyme inactivation with simultaneous formation of a mixed disulfide between glutathione and the cysteine residue(s) in IDPm, which was detected by immunoblotting with anti-GSH IgG. The inactivated IDPm was reactivated enzymatically by glutaredoxin2 in the presence of GSH, indicating that the inactivated form of IDPm is a glutathionyl mixed disulfide. Mass spectrometry and site-directed mutagenesis further confirmed that glutathionylation occurs to a Cys(269) of IDPm. The glutathionylated IDPm appeared to be significantly less susceptible than native protein to peptide fragmentation by reactive oxygen species and proteolytic digestion, suggesting that glutathionylation plays a protective role presumably through the structural alterations. HEK293 cells and intact respiring mitochondria treated with oxidants inducing GSH oxidation such as H(2)O(2) or diamide showed a decrease in IDPm activity and the accumulation of glutathionylated enzyme. Using immunoprecipitation with anti-IDPm IgG and immunoblotting with anti-GSH IgG, we were also able to purify and positively identify glutathionylated IDPm from 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine-treated mice, a model for Parkinson's disease. The results of the current study indicate that IDPm activity appears to be modulated through enzymatic glutathionylation and deglutathionylation during oxidative stress.